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Techreport Reference D2.1 - Literature review on past accident
Maritime transport of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) has increased for 20 years, involving the risk of major pollution accidents with potentially more hazardous than oil. Chemicals may involve long-term environmental effects and the risks for public safety can be more severe for chemical releases (European Maritime Safety Agency [EMSA], 2007). Approximately 2,000 chemicals are transported by sea and only a few hundred chemicals are transported in bulk, but it represents the main volume of the chemical trade (Purnell, 2009). Alongside the expansion of chemicals transported at sea, incidents involving chemical tankers increased accordingly. Still, information on past and more recent incidents is not easily available. Furthermore, in the case of marine accident involving HNS, spill response is difficult due to the chemicals spilled, particularly when gas or volatile substances are released. The vapour cloud created can be toxic, flammable or explosive and there is a necessity to protect the crew, the population nearby as well as the environment and the stakeholders involved in marine pollution response. As an example, Figure 1 shows a picture of the explosion which occurred in September 2019 in the Ulsan harbour, South Korea. This explosion is the consequence of a styrene monomer leak on the chemical tanker Stolt Groenland that led to a massive explosion with fireball and mushroom cloud. The present report is a literature review on past accidents that have induced the formation of a toxic, flammable or explosive gas cloud. The information gathered will allow better identification of 1) the categories of chemicals most involved; 2) the main risks generated by the gas cloud dispersion in the air and 3) the consequences of a chemical slick on fire at the water surface as well as the hazard due to a vapour cloud explosion. This work is part of WP2: Enhancing knowledge and data on gases and evaporators of the MANIFESTS program (Managing risks and impacts from evaporating and gaseous substances to population safety) that studies risks associated to accidental chemical spills in the marine environment. The aim of this WP is to contribute to a better prediction of the consequences of vapour clouds due to marine accidents. This would facilitate the intervention of marine pollution organisms and would also help to protect population nearby, as we would know precisely where the dangerous area is.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021 OA
Techreport Reference D4.1 Explosive risk and fire module
Responding to maritime accidents can be extremely challenging when involving HNS that behave as evaporators. Due to their potential to form toxic or combustible clouds, evidence-based decisions are needed to protect the crew, responders, the coastal population and the environment. However, when an emergency is declared, key information is not always available for all the needs of responders. A case in point is the lack of knowledge and data to assess the risks that responders or rescue teams could take when intervening, or those that could impact coastal communities when allowing a shipping casualty to dock at a place of refuge. The MANIFESTS project aims to address these uncertainties and improve response and training capacities through the development of an operational decision-support system (DSS) for volatile HNS spills. Besides management and communication, the project includes four other work packages: WP2 on collecting new data on evaporators, WP3 on table top exercises and field training, WP4 on improving modelling tools and WP5 on the development of the DSS. Key expected outcomes include: · Operational guidance; · Desktop and field exercises; · In situ training; · Experimental data on gas cloud fate; · A brand-new fire and explosion modelling module; · Improved HNS database with new experimental data on evaporation/dissolution kinetics. This report presents the results obtained in the framework of the task 4.1 aiming at developing tools that would help responders to asses risks in case of explosion and of fire of volatile HNS. The fire module computes the energy flux as a function of the distance to the fire source. It is useful to assess the safety distance at which e.g. a boat can approach a fire while keeping the crew safe. The energy flux can cause burning to people, and start new fire. The burning rate is also estimated. The explosion module computes the overpressure of the shockwave caused by the combustion of a chemical. This overpressure can be very dangerous for people and structure, causing wounds from minor injury to death and destruction of building. The model could be used to predict what could happen in case of the explosion of a stored explosive for instance. The two models are simplifications of the reality and do not take everything into account. Their results can be useful to have a rough idea of what could happen in open sea but should always be interpreted keeping the model hypotheses and limitations in mind. Due to the sensitivity of the topic, the source code of both modules is not made available to public
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Article Reference The benthic foraminiferal response to the mid-Maastrichtian event in the NW-European chalk sea of the Maastrichtian type area
The mid-Maastrichtian carbon isotope event (MME), dated at ∼69 Ma, reflects a perturbation of the global carbon cycle that, in part, correlates with the enigmatic global extinction of ‘true’ (i.e., non-tegulated) inoceramid bivalves. The mechanisms of this extinction event are still debated. While both the inoceramid extirpation and MME have been recorded in a variety of deep-sea sites, little is known about their expression in epicontinental chalk seas. In order to study the shallow-marine signature of the MME in this epicontinental shelf sea, we have generated quantitative foraminiferal assemblage data for two quarries (Hallembaye, NE Belgium; ENCI, SE Netherlands) in the Maastrichtian type area, complemented by a species-specific benthic δ13C record. In contrast to deep-sea records, no significant changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblages and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates are observed across the MME in the type-Maastrichtian area. At the Hallembaye quarry, the otherwise rare endobenthic species Cuneus trigona reaches a transient peak abundance of 33.3% at the onset of the MME, likely caused by a local transient change in organic matter flux to the seafloor. Nevertheless, high and near-constant species evenness shows that neither oxygen nor organic matter flux was limited across the extinction level or during the MME. Benthic foraminiferal data from the uppermost part of the studied section, above the MME, indicate a significant increase in food supply to the seafloor. Decreased amounts of terrigenous elements across this interval document a lesser riverine or aeolian influx, which means that the increased benthic productivity is linked to a different origin. Potentially, the continuous precipitation of chalk under nutrient-poor conditions in the Late Cretaceous chalk sea was enabled by efficient nutrient recycling in the water column. In shallower depositional settings, nutrient recycling took place closer to the seafloor, which allowed more organic matter to reach the bottom. These results provide insights in the importance of nutrient cycling for biological productivity in the NW-European chalk sea.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA
Unpublished Reference Identification of Funding Priorities. Document OTSOPA 22/02/02 presented by Belgium and France at the Meeting of the Working Group on Operational, Technical and Scientific Questions Concerning Counter Pollution Activities (OTSOPA)
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA
Article Reference Molecular Identification of an Invasive Sarotherodon Species from the Atchakpa Freshwater Reservoir (Ouémé River Basin, Benin) and Comparison within S. melanotheron Using COI Markers
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021 OA
Article Reference African lates perches (Teleostei, Latidae, Lates): Paraphyly of Nile perch and recent colonization of Lake Tanganyika
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Techreport Reference Human impacts on ecosystem health and resources of Lake Edward
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021 OA
Article Reference Diving into the unknown: fourteen new species of haplosclerid sponges (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida) revealed along the Peruvian coast (Southeastern Pacific)
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference Informe preliminar dels treballs arqueològics realitzats a Oxirrinc (El-Bahnasa, Minia , Egipte), durant la campanya de 2013
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference Genital anatomy, jaw and radula of Guladentia subtussulcata (Helicoidea, Cepolidae), endemic to western Cuba
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA