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Article Reference Waulsort Caverne X: A new cave site with Early Mesolithic human remains in Belgium.
Caverne X in Waulsort (Namur province, Belgium), excavated in the 19 th century, revealed a burial site which was unexpectedly dated to the Final Upper Paleolithic (10,820 ± 80 BP, OxA-6856) in the 1990's. A re-examination of the collection and a new radiocarbon dating program was recently undertaken. The dates obtained on four left femurs (9285 ± 30 BP, ETH-74725; 9310 ± 30 BP, ETH-74726; 9340 ± 30 BP, ETH-74727; 9300 ± 30 BP, ETH-74728) revealed that the remains should in fact be attributed to the Early Mesolithic, ISSN 0259-3548 25 MM 28:2 (December 2020) consistent with 24 other 14 C dates obtained for eight cave sites in the Meuse Basin which range from ca. 9600 BP to 9000 BP. Caverne X contained 544 human remains belonging to at least nine individuals (one fetus, one perinatal/young child, one teenager, two adolescents/young adults and four adults), and 66 faunal remains consisting mainly of intrusive animals with the possible exception of a cervid antler, and one artefact (a small flint blade). Other than ochre deposits, all alterations (breakage, surface abrasion, impact scars and concretions) are post-depositional in origin. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis indicates a diet primarily based on terrestrial resources from an open landscape with proteins provided by large herbivores. Our study shows that Caverne X fits well with results already obtained for the Meuse Basin cave burials in terms of chronology, minimum number of individuals, funerary rituals and diet.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference Weak link between dispersal and parasite community differentiation or immunogenetic divergence in two sympatric cichlid fishes
Geographical isolation, habitat variation and trophic specialization have contributed to a large extent to the astonishing diversity of cichlid fishes in the Great East African lakes. Because parasite communities often vary across space and environments, parasites can accompany and potentially enhance cichlid species diversification. However, host dispersal may reduce opportunities for parasite-driven evolution by homogenizing parasite communities and allele frequencies of immunity genes. To test for the relationships between parasite community variation, host dispersal and parasiteinduced host evolution, we studied two sympatric cichlid species with contrasting dispersal capacities along the shores of southern Lake Tanganyika. Whereas the philopatric Tropheus moorii evolved into several genetically differentiated colour morphs, Simochromis diagramma is phenotypically rather uniform across its distribution range and shows only weak population structure. Populations of both species were infected with divergent parasite communities and harbour differentiated variant pools of an important set of immune genes, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The overall extent of geographical variation of parasites and MHC genes was similar between host species. This indicates that immunogenetic divergence among populations of Lake Tanganyika cichlids can occur even in species that are strongly dispersing. However, because this also includes species that are phenotypically uniform, parasite-induced evolution may not represent a key factor underlying species diversification in this system.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2016
Article Reference Weak population structure and recent demographic expansion of the monogenean parasite Kapentagyrus spp. infecting clupeid fishes of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Inproceedings Reference Weird Fish: Defining a role for fish paleopathology
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2018
Article Reference Well-preserved Eocene Aturia's from Boujdour, SW Morocco
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2018
Article Reference Were all Devonian seeds cupulate? A reinvestigation of Pseudosporogonites Hallei, Xenotheca Bertrandii and Aglosperma spp.
Premise of research. Although the most comprehensively known Devonian seeds were borne in a “telomic” cupule, those of some species have been postulated as being borne terminally on naked axes lacking a cupule. Uncertainty remains as to whether such seeds were shed from a cupule before preservation. We reinvestigate the Upper Devonian fossils Pseudosporogonites hallei and Xenotheca bertrandii from Belgium and the similar ovules Aglosperma quadrapartita and Aglosperma avonensis from Britain and Aglosperma sp. from North America to consider their structure and organization and to determine whether they were cupulate. Methodology. Compressions/adpressions of X. bertrandii and Pseudosporogonites from Belgium and A. quadrapartita and A. avonensis from the United Kingdom, as well as Anglosperma sp. from Pennsylvania, were prepared, mainly by dégagement. Observation and photography were carried out using crossed polarizing filters. Pivotal results. Pseudosporogonites hallei, X. bertrandii, and A. quadrapartita comprise single ovules borne within small, radially symmetrical, uniovulate cupules. Integuments are entire at the chalaza but form flattened lobes distally. While a cupule is unknown in A. avonensis, its comparable integument morphology suggests that it was shed from a uniovulate cupule. Although the species are distinct from each other, their similarities show that they are closely related and belong to a single genus, for which the name Pseudosporogonites has priority. We emend P. hallei in light of our findings and erect the combinations P. bertrandii (Stockmans) C. Prestianni, J. Hilton et W. Cressler, P. quadrapartitus (J. Hilton et D. Edwards) C. Prestianni, J. Hilton et W. Cressler, and P. avonensis (J. Hilton) C. Prestianni, J. Hilton et W. Cressler. Conclusions. The uniovulate cupule in Pseudosporogonites is distinct from multiovulate telomic cupules of other Devonian seeds and expands the phenotypic diversity seen during the earliest phase of seed plant radiation, which was geologically instantaneous. Hydrasperman pollination in all proven Devonian seeds demonstrates evolution from a common ancestor, but finding morphological intermediates between seed and free-sporing plants remains a significant challenge to evolutionary plant biology.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference Were ancient foxes far more carnivorous than recent ones? Carnassial morphological evidence
Crown shape variation of the first lower molar in the arctic (Vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was analyzed using five groups of morphotypes. Carnassial morphologies were compared between the species and between spatially and temporally distant populations: one Late Pleistocene (n = 45) and seven modern populations of the arctic fox (n = 259), and one Late Pleistocene (n = 35) and eight modern populations of the red fox (n = 606). The dentition of Holocene red foxes had larger morphotype variability than that of arctic foxes. The lower carnassials of the red fox kept have some primitive characters (additional cusps and stylids, complex shape of transverse cristid), whereas the first lower molars of the arctic fox have undergone crown shape simplification, with the occlusal part of the tooth undergoing a more pronounced adaptation to a more carnivorous diet. From the Late Pleistocene of Belgium to the present days, the arctic fox’s crown shape has been simplified and some primitive characters have disappeared. In the red fox chronological changes in the morphology of the lower carnassials were not clearly identified. The phyletic tree based on morphotype carnassial characteristics indicated the distinctiveness of both foxes: in the arctic fox line, the ancient population from Belgium and recent Greenland made separate branches, whereas in the red foxes the ancient population from Belgium was most similar to modern red foxes from Belgium and Italy.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference Were bears or lions involved in salmon accumulation in the Middle Palaeolithic of the Caucasus? An isotopic investigation in Kudaro 3 cave
Bone fragments of large anadromous salmon in the Middle Palaeolithic archaeological layers of Kudaro 3 cave (Caucasus) suggested fish consumption by archaic Hominins, such as Neandertals. However, large carnivores such as Asiatic cave bears (Ursus kudarensis) and cave lions (Panthera spelaea) were also found in the cave and could have been responsible for such an accumulation. The diet of these carnivores was evaluated using carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes in faunal bone collagen. The results suggest that anadromous fish were neither part of the diet of either cave bear (vegetarian) or cave lion (predators of herbivores from arid areas) and therefore provide indirect support to the idea that Middle Palaeolithic Hominins, probably Neandertals, were able to consume fish when it was available.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference West African Manatee Trichechus senegalensis (LINK, 1795) in the Estuary of the Congo River (Democratic Republic of the Congo): Review and Update
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2017
Incollection Reference Western Coastal Plain of Belgium
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications