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Inbook Reference Present-day traditional ovicaprine herding as a reconstructional aid for herding at Roman Sagalassos
Located in Library / No RBINS Staff publications
Inbook Reference Draught cattle and its osteological indications: the example of Sagalassos
Located in Library / No RBINS Staff publications
Inbook Reference People of the höyüks versus people of the mountains?
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Inbook Reference Animal husbandry at the Early Neolithic to Early Bronze Age site of Bademağacı (Antalya province, SW Turkey): evidence from the faunal remains
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Inproceedings Reference Optimal geodata centralization and disclosure as support for subsurface exploration
It is widely known that the subsurface will play a crucial role in the transition towards a carbon-neutral society, with the aid of technologies like geothermal energy, CO2-storage, .... Nevertheless, still a lot of aspects concerning the subsurface, its structure and characteristics remain to be investigated to facilitate the use of underground space in an efficient and safe way. In-depth investigation of the subsurface with conventional techniques such as seismic campaigns or drillings requires high investments, and it is not always straightforward to determine the success-rate upfront. This leads to geodata collections typically displaying a large variety and scatter, both concerning data (type) availability and in spatial distribution. Additionally, incorporating subsurface knowledge from neighboring countries often is challenging, but at the same time indispensable to increase understanding of the own subsurface, not least because some projects may display cross-border influences. It is clear that subsurface exploration benefits from a cross-border and cross-thematic data collection and interpretation approach. One way to organize such data centralization was explored in the framework of the European Horizon2020-project GeoConnect³d, by means of constructing a Structural Framework (SF) and a database of Geomanifestations (GM) for several pilot study areas. The Structural Framework defines geological units by its limits (e.g., faults, terrane boundaries, ...). All known limits and associated parameters are structured in a uniform and inter-connected way. Furthermore, the SF is designed on multiple zoom-levels, hence it can serve as a real backbone to integrate multiple other subsurface models of various scale and resolution together. Geomanifestations are anomalous observations covering a wide range of geo-disciplines, including —but not limited to— temperature, geochemistry, mineralogy and even geophysics data. Such irregularities are too often excluded or ignored in view of the larger cloud of ‘normal’ datapoints. Nevertheless, precisely these anomalies can be of great value for identifying subsurface processes and serve as an excellent pathway for communication to non-experts, and also as guideline for further research. In addition to GIS- and attribute-information, Factsheets summarize the relations between individual geomanifestations, and, if applicable, their connection to the Structural Framework. Especially the latter, the combination of the (independent) elements SF and GM, gives a powerful tool that allows exploring the subsurface in an original and cost-efficient way. The newly gained insights can be directly linked and are extremely relevant to the use of the subsurface, either as storage space or as renewable/green energy-source. But it goes further than that. The overall usability of the SF and GM database is far more fundamental, as it gives innovative clues about characteristics and processes at play in the subsurface, such as fault permeability and connectivity, the presence of advection cells in the upper crust, or gas origin and migration pathways. To quote just one example; in the area of Spa, Belgium, elevated 3He/4He-ratios were analyzed (Griesshaber et al., 1992), a parameter that can highlight mantle gas contribution in gas seeps (White, 2013). This observation was unexpected given the far distance from any volcanic activity, but suggests the presence of deep-seated, transcrustal faults and/or a large-distance connectivity till the Eifel area where mantle-derived magma was involved in recent volcanism. When indirect indications like this are not considered further, such valuable subsurface knowledge is easily overlooked and not at all taken into account for investigating in more detail in the future. Even when limited resources or funding is available, the above-illustrated SF+GM approach can shed new light on properties and processes of the subsurface, given its novel and multidisciplinary approach. An inherent drawback, however, is that such a database is never complete and includes information from a variety of sources. Not only does this demands careful consideration on which data is included (or not), it also has to be taken into account for future database expansion as well as for data interpretation. Simple visualizations on a map without further (geological) background, e.g., combining both surface and at depth data as is the case for Wiesbaden, Germany (Mittelbach & Siebert, 2014), may lead to false conclusions. However, the provided Factsheets and metadata can help in this. Furthermore, at this moment, a large proportion of the entries depends on the availability of literature data, which implies some data source bias is unavoidable. For example, CO2-data typically is measured for springs and streams, while dry CO2-seeps easier remain unnoticed and therefore are reported less consistently. New data collection campaigns, possibly including bio-indicators like plants or ants (e.g., Berberich & Schreiber, 2013), can provide a good starting point for this. The uniform and well-designed structure of the database allows very easy expansion, be it for newly discovered faults, additional geomanifestation types, or parameter updates of either part. In addition, as demonstrated in the GeoConnect³d project, the SF+GM approach is fully transferable to other study areas. This clears the way for a cost-efficient cross-border exploration of the subsurface with wins for both the academic world and common public (geoheritage, education, ...), and significantly contributes to a more data-supported outline for subsurface management. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 731166. References Berberich, G., & Schreiber, U., 2013. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany). Animals, 3, 475-498. Griesshaber, E., O'Nions, R.K. & Oxburg, E.R., 1992. Helium and carbon isotope systematics in crustal fluids from the Eifel, the Rhine Graben and Black Forest, F.R.G. Chemical Geology, 99, 213-235. Mittelbach, G. & Siebert, S., 2014. Gutachten zur Festsetzung eines Heilquellenschutzgebietes für die Heilquellen (Große und Kleine Adlerquelle, Schützenhofquelle, Kochbrunnen, Salmquelle und Faulbrunnen) von Wiesbaden, Stadt Wiesbaden (WSG-ID 414-005), Wiesbaden, pp. 1-52. White, W.M., 2013. Chapter 12: Noble Gas Isotope Geochemistry, Isotope Geochemistry course notes. Cornell University.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021 OA
Inproceedings Reference Reading Minerals: Rare Element Enrichment, the Magmatic-Hydrothermal Transition, and Geochemical Exploration of Lithium Pegmatites in Ireland
The battery market for electric vehicles and renewable energy storage is dominated by rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, making lithium supply essential to climate action through decarbonization. In 2019, more than half of the world's lithium was sourced from lithium pegmatites of the Li-Cs-Ta (LCT) family, predominantly from Australia. Current global lithium supply involves long diesel-fueled maritime transport routes, which counteracts lithium's role in climate action. Responsible consumption and production require shorter supply chains from deposit to battery. Reading the mineralogical record of LCT pegmatite deposits can help address the challenge of reducing the climate impact of lithium production, by informing deposit models, mineral exploration, and geometallurgy, therefore promoting local supply. Our research focuses on a belt of LCT pegmatites, which is located along the eastern margin of the late-Caledonian S-type Leinster Batholith, southeast Ireland. The LCT pegmatites are hosted by a major regional shear zone and are part of a tin-lithium province that stretches subparallel to the Iapetus suture from Europe through Nova Scotia to North and South Carolina. We investigated crystal chemical zoning in muscovite, cassiterite, and columbite-tantalite using petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and LA-ICP-MS chemical mapping. The zoning patterns record that pegmatite rare element mineralization resulted from an interplay of magmatic crystallization, metasomatism, and hydrothermal processes. Late-stage metasomatic alteration led to partial resorption of early minerals including the lithium ore-mineral spodumene, followed by dispersion of lithium and other rare elements into country rocks, mostly within dark mica. Dispersion led to formation of geochemical halos around the LCT pegmatites with the potential to use country-rock lithogeochemistry and mica composition as geochemical vectoring tools. Geochemistry of mica in the granite host analyzed by handheld LIBS has been found to exhibit coherent spatial patterns occurring adjacent to and above LCT pegmatites known at depth from drilling. These channels of mineral-specific geochemical information are distinct from soil geochemical patterns and are not influenced by the same secondary, surface processes such as dilution. As outcrop is virtually absent in the study area, regional stream sediment geochemistry data (Geological Survey Ireland) was assessed as an LCT pegmatite exploration tool. After correcting for geologic background using a linear regression approach, catchments containing LCT pegmatites show high residuals for concentrations of both tantalum and tin. The mineralogy of stream sediment samples from a subsample of these catchments was subsequently analyzed to characterize the host minerals of tin and tantalum. Cassiterite and columbite-tantalite were identified, and both show geochemical and textural signatures that correspond to the zoning patterns mentioned above, which indicates that these minerals were derived from the local LCT pegmatites. These results suggest that, when regional geology and tectonic setting are prospective, lithium pegmatite prospectivity can be further assessed for tin-tantalum associations in (often publicly available) regional stream sediment data. Following geospatial analysis, stream sediment samples could be obtained from individual prospective catchments and their mineralogy analyzed. Local-scale geochemical surveys could follow where stream sediments of prospective catchments contain tin and tantalum oxides with chemistries and textures indicative of a lithium pegmatite source.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Inproceedings Reference Vestibular sensitivity and locomotor behavior in early paleocene mammals
The end-Cretaceous extinction triggered the collapse of ecosystems and a drastic turnover of mammalian communities. During the Mesozoic, mammals were ecologically diverse, but less than extant species. Modern ecological richness was established by the Eocene, but questions remain about the ecology of the first wave of mammals radiating after the extinction. Postcranial fossils are often used to determine locomotor behavior; however, the semicircular canals of the inner ear also represent a reliable proxy. These canals detect the angular acceleration of the head during locomotion and transmit neuronal signals to the brain to allow stabilization of the eyes and head. Accordingly, vestibular sensitivity to rapid rotational head movements is higher in species with a larger canal radius of curvature and more orthogonal canals. We used high-resolution computed tomography scanning to obtain inner ear virtual endocasts for 30 specimens. We supplemented these with data from the literature to construct a database of 79 fossils from the Jurassic to the Eocene and 262 extant mammals. We compared data on canal morphology and another lifestyle proxy, the size of the petrosal lobules, which have a role in maintaining eyes’ movements and position. We find that Paleocene mammals exhibited a lower average and more constricted range of Agility Indices (AI), a new measure of canal radius size relative to body size, compared to Mesozoic, Eocene and extant taxa. In the early Paleocene, body mass and canal radius increased, but the former outpaced the latter leading to an AI decline. Similarly, their petrosal lobules were relatively smaller on average compared to other temporal groups, which suggests less ability for fast movements. Additionally, Paleocene mammals had similar AIs to extant scansorial and terrestrial quadrupeds. In contrast, the lack of canal orthogonality change from the Mesozoic to the Paleocene indicates no trend toward lower vestibular sensitivity regardless of changes in body size. This result may reflect functional differences between canal orthogonality and radius size. Our results support previous work on tarsal morphology and locomotor behavior ancestral state reconstruction suggesting that ground dwelling mammals were more common than arboreal taxa during the Paleocene. Ultimately, this pattern may indicate that the collapse of forested environments immediately after extinction led to the preferential survivorship of more terrestrially adapted mammals. Funding Sources Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions: IF, European Research Council StG, National Science Foundation, Belgian Science Policy Office, DMNS No Walls Community Initiative.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA
Inproceedings Reference Un crâne de crocodilien du Paléocène inférieur de Chine recule l'apparition des crocodyloïdes en Asie
Les plus anciens crocodiliens (Crocodylia) d’Asie ne sont représentés jusqu’à présent que par des alligatoroïdes et des planocraniidés. Bien que les crocodyloïdes ne soient pas connus avec certitude avant l’Éocène supérieur, l’hypothèse a été émise que des crocodyloïdes basaux de type Asiatosuchus étaient originaires d’Asie avant la fin du Paléocène. Nous décrivons ici un nouveau crocodyloïde fossile provenant du Paléocène inférieur du Bassin de Qianshan, province d’Anhui, Chine. Le crâne et le fragment de mâchoire inférieure associé présentent plusieurs caractéristiques typiques de crocodiliens juvéniles. Ils présentent également une combinaison de caractères non observés dans aucun autre taxon, ce qui justifie l’érection d’une nouvelle espèce et d’un nouveau genre. Les affinités phylogénétiques sont testées dans des analyses basées sur deux matrices de caractères récentes d’Eusuchia. Pour évaluer l’effet des caractéristiques juvéniles sur le résultat des analyses phylogénétiques, des spécimens juvéniles des crocodiliens actuels Alligator mississippiensis et Crocodylus niloticus ont été analysés de la même manière, montrant que l’effet de leur stade ontogénétique sur leur position dans l’arbre est minime. Nos analyses indiquent que le nouveau taxon de Qianshan occupe une position basale au sein des Crocodyloidea. La présence de ces derniers en Asie est donc reculée au Paléocène inférieur, soit 15 à 20 millions d’années plus tôt que ce que l’on pensait auparavant. De plus, nos résultats corroborent les hypothèses précédentes d’une route de dispersion paléocène des crocodyloïdes de type Asiatosuchus de l’Asie vers l’Europe.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA
Inbook Reference System-to-system Interface Between the EMSA CleanSeaNet Service and OSERIT
The European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) and the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS) develop and operate together a system-to-system interface between the EMSA’s CleanSeaNet service and OSERIT, the Belgian Oil Spill Evaluation and Response Integrated Tool. This interface is meant to provide CleanSeaNet users with a support tool for early and automatic oil drift and fate simulation results of any satellite-detected oil spills reported by the CleanSeaNet service in the North Sea and the English Channel. In view of the automatic forecast and backtrack simulations results, CleanSeaNet users have the possibility to further refine this early risk assessment either by activating their own national decision support system or by requesting new, advanced simulations through the CleanSeaNet GIS viewer. This interface is currently passing the final acceptance tests. However, the system has already been used by RBINS for the oil pollution event subsequent to the Flinterstar sinking at 8km off the port of Zeebruges on the 6 th of October 2015. This event perfectly illustrates the potential synergies of remote sensing and modelling in case of marine pollution and their integration in risk assessments that must be performed for any significant pollution of the marine system.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference Archeozoölogisch onderzoek over de transitie Romeinse-vroegmiddeleeuwse periode in België
Located in Library / No RBINS Staff publications