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Inproceedings Reference Characterization, procurement and transformation of iron-rich raw material during Early Neolithic in Northwestern Europe
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Inproceedings Reference De la terre au métal : les approvisionnements d’un atelier du travail du cuivre et de ses alliages à Bruxelles au début du XVe siècle.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Proceedings Reference WORKSHOP TO SCOPE ASSESSMENT METHODS TO SET THRESHOLDS (WKBENTH2)
The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires Member States to achieve good en- vironmental status (GES) across their marine waters. The EU have requested ICES to advise on methods for assessing adverse effects on seabed habitats, through selection of relevant indicators for the assessment of benthic habitats and seafloor integrity and associated threshold values for GES in relation to Descriptor 6 – Seabed integrity under the MFSD. Two sets of criteria were developed to evaluate indicators and thresholds respectively for eval- uation of suitability for assessing GES. 16 indicator and 12 threshold criteria were compiled and weighted by importance. The criteria were designed for evaluation at a subregional or regional level. The scoring for these criteria is meant as a guidance when choosing indicators and thresh- olds, so failure to meet one criterion will not necessarily prevent the use of the indicator or thresh- old in an assessment. The framework was evaluated for 6 indicators and for 11 methods for set- ting thresholds. The criteria were found to be useful for evaluation both indicators and thresh- olds. The process works most consistently when there are experts in the group on both the crite- ria themselves and on the indicators and thresholds. The MFSD Descriptor 6 determination of GES needs both a quality threshold (when are seabed habitats in a good state in a specific location) and an extent threshold (proportion of the assess- ment area that needs to have seabed habitats in good state). Eleven different methods for setting thresholds were identified, of which more are suitable for setting quality than for extent thresh- olds. Preferred methods identified an ecologically-motivated difference between a good and de- graded state, rather than another transition. Quality thresholds based on the lower boundary of the range of natural variation were considered most promising. This approach can be used for most, but not all, indicators. The WK collated a standardized dataset to test the specificity, sensitivity and/or responsiveness of sampling-based benthic indicators to pressure gradients for evaluation by WKBENTH3. Risk- based methods will be evaluated as maps and by scored sensitivity and impact score per MSFD habitat type and subdivision. Participants provided input into the selection of indicators for the compilation of indicators. A template was developed for documenting the characteristics of each indicator to facilitate the evaluation of the indicators.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Inproceedings Reference Un crâne de crocodilien du Paléocène inférieur de Chine recule l'apparition des crocodyloïdes en Asie
Les plus anciens crocodiliens (Crocodylia) d’Asie ne sont représentés jusqu’à présent que par des alligatoroïdes et des planocraniidés. Bien que les crocodyloïdes ne soient pas connus avec certitude avant l’Éocène supérieur, l’hypothèse a été émise que des crocodyloïdes basaux de type Asiatosuchus étaient originaires d’Asie avant la fin du Paléocène. Nous décrivons ici un nouveau crocodyloïde fossile provenant du Paléocène inférieur du Bassin de Qianshan, province d’Anhui, Chine. Le crâne et le fragment de mâchoire inférieure associé présentent plusieurs caractéristiques typiques de crocodiliens juvéniles. Ils présentent également une combinaison de caractères non observés dans aucun autre taxon, ce qui justifie l’érection d’une nouvelle espèce et d’un nouveau genre. Les affinités phylogénétiques sont testées dans des analyses basées sur deux matrices de caractères récentes d’Eusuchia. Pour évaluer l’effet des caractéristiques juvéniles sur le résultat des analyses phylogénétiques, des spécimens juvéniles des crocodiliens actuels Alligator mississippiensis et Crocodylus niloticus ont été analysés de la même manière, montrant que l’effet de leur stade ontogénétique sur leur position dans l’arbre est minime. Nos analyses indiquent que le nouveau taxon de Qianshan occupe une position basale au sein des Crocodyloidea. La présence de ces derniers en Asie est donc reculée au Paléocène inférieur, soit 15 à 20 millions d’années plus tôt que ce que l’on pensait auparavant. De plus, nos résultats corroborent les hypothèses précédentes d’une route de dispersion paléocène des crocodyloïdes de type Asiatosuchus de l’Asie vers l’Europe.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA
Inproceedings Reference Vestibular sensitivity and locomotor behavior in early paleocene mammals
The end-Cretaceous extinction triggered the collapse of ecosystems and a drastic turnover of mammalian communities. During the Mesozoic, mammals were ecologically diverse, but less than extant species. Modern ecological richness was established by the Eocene, but questions remain about the ecology of the first wave of mammals radiating after the extinction. Postcranial fossils are often used to determine locomotor behavior; however, the semicircular canals of the inner ear also represent a reliable proxy. These canals detect the angular acceleration of the head during locomotion and transmit neuronal signals to the brain to allow stabilization of the eyes and head. Accordingly, vestibular sensitivity to rapid rotational head movements is higher in species with a larger canal radius of curvature and more orthogonal canals. We used high-resolution computed tomography scanning to obtain inner ear virtual endocasts for 30 specimens. We supplemented these with data from the literature to construct a database of 79 fossils from the Jurassic to the Eocene and 262 extant mammals. We compared data on canal morphology and another lifestyle proxy, the size of the petrosal lobules, which have a role in maintaining eyes’ movements and position. We find that Paleocene mammals exhibited a lower average and more constricted range of Agility Indices (AI), a new measure of canal radius size relative to body size, compared to Mesozoic, Eocene and extant taxa. In the early Paleocene, body mass and canal radius increased, but the former outpaced the latter leading to an AI decline. Similarly, their petrosal lobules were relatively smaller on average compared to other temporal groups, which suggests less ability for fast movements. Additionally, Paleocene mammals had similar AIs to extant scansorial and terrestrial quadrupeds. In contrast, the lack of canal orthogonality change from the Mesozoic to the Paleocene indicates no trend toward lower vestibular sensitivity regardless of changes in body size. This result may reflect functional differences between canal orthogonality and radius size. Our results support previous work on tarsal morphology and locomotor behavior ancestral state reconstruction suggesting that ground dwelling mammals were more common than arboreal taxa during the Paleocene. Ultimately, this pattern may indicate that the collapse of forested environments immediately after extinction led to the preferential survivorship of more terrestrially adapted mammals. Funding Sources Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions: IF, European Research Council StG, National Science Foundation, Belgian Science Policy Office, DMNS No Walls Community Initiative.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA
Inproceedings Reference Présence d'un gecko dans l'Eocène basal de Dormaal (Belgique): un élément thermophile du PETM ?
Si le registre fossile des lézards est assez bon pour l’Eocène moyen et supérieur en Europe, il n’en va pas de même pour l’Eocène inférieur. Seule la localité de Dormaal, datant de l’Eocène basal (niveau-repère MP7,Belgique) semble faire exception. Parmi les nombreux fossiles de lézards de cette localité, nous présentons ici pour la première fois quelques rares éléments appartenant à un gecko. Ce dernier vivait donc dans nos régions durant le Maximum Thermique Paléocène-Eocène (PETM), climat le plus chaud des 66 derniers millions d’années. Ce nouveau taxon, daté de 56 Ma, est le plus ancien gecko cénozoïque connu en Europe. Avec Laonogekko lefevrei de Prémontré (MP 10, Bassin de Paris), plus jeune d’environ 5 millions d’années, ces taxons forment la radiation du Paléogène inférieur de ce clade. Aujourd’hui, les geckos sont répartis dans le monde entier, principalement dans les zones tempérées chaudes à tropicales, bien que certaines espèces puissent atteindre des régions plus froides dans les hémisphères Nord et Sud. Le nouveau gecko de Dormaal représente un élément thermophile, confirmant les préférences thermiques actuelles des geckos. Par ailleurs, la distribution de ce groupe dans des latitudes aussi septentrionales (au-dessus de 50° Nord) n’est pas surprenante durant cette période particulièrement chaude. Bien que le nouveau taxon décrit ici ne soit représenté que par un frontal et des dentaires (deux des éléments les plus fréquemment préservés chez les geckos fossiles), il fournit un nouveau record de diversité des squamates à la base de l’Eocène. Avec Yantarogekko de l’ambre éocène de la Baltique (district de Kaliningrad, nord-ouest de la Russie), ces geckos documentent la distribution septentrionale des geckos en Europe pendant l’Éocène.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022 OA
Inproceedings Reference RESPONSE project: Reactive transport of point source contamination in soils and groundwater
The RESPONSE project aims at improving the use of coupled reactive transport models to simulate the fate of inorganic and organic contaminants within environments, characterised by a fluctuating shallow groundwater table – inducing strong hydraulic, physico-chemical and redox gradients. Three case studies were selected based on the presence of inorganic and/or organic contamination. Two sites are cemeteries where groundwater pollution by herbicides (2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) – a persistent metabolite of herbicide dichlobenil) was detected. Top soil and groundwater samples were collected and the BAM degradation and mineralization potential of soil microbiota is tested in the laboratory. It is hypothesized that BAM degradation is strongly affected by DOC quality (measured through specific UV absorbance) and quantity. RESPONSE will investigate whether predictions of dichlobenil and BAM migration in soils and groundwater can be improved by taking into account DOC quality/quantity.The third site is a former municipal landfill, where redox zonation and contamination by As is observed. This site is primarily used to study the level of hydrogeological and geochemical detail needed to predict the migration of pollutants in a satisfactory way. This hypothesis is tested by comparing predictions using site specific measured parameters (soil and subsoil hydraulic parameters, in-situ groundwater flow characterization, etc.) with predictions using parameters inferred from existing hydrological/ geochemical data available in data bases. Moreover, an integrated tool is developed to simulate water flow and reactive solute transport in the subsurface focusing on the water table interface. This is achieved by loosely coupling the existing HYDRUS, MODFLOW, MT3D-USGS and PHREEQC codes at the lowest level and adding functionalities for the transfer of solute concentrations. The HYDRUS package for MODFLOW (Seo et al., 2007) has been updated and PHREEQC functionalities are coupled to both the unsaturated zone (based on HPx software; Jacques et al., 2018) and the saturated zone.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Inproceedings Reference One Year of Taxonomic Capacity Building by the Belgian Focal Point to the GTI
see pdf
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Inproceedings Reference Shallow-water holothuroid (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) biodiversity and biogeography of the subtropical coast of South Africa
see pdf
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Inproceedings Reference Abc Taxa, Field guide to the brittle and basket stars (Echinodermata: ophiuroidea) of South Africa.
Brittle and basket stars (ophiuroids) are one of five extant classes of the phylum Echinodermata and have a fossil record dating back almost 500 million years to the Early Ordovician. Today they remain diverse and widespread, with over 260 described genera and over 2 000 extant species globally, more than any other class of echinoderm. Ophiuroid species are found across all marine habitats from the intertidal shore to the abyss. In southern Africa, the ophiuroid fauna has been studied extensively by a number of authors and is relatively well-known. The last published review of the southern African Ophiuroidea however was by Clark and Courtman-Stock in 1976. It included 101 species reported from within the boundaries of South Africa. In the 40 years since that publication the number of species has risen to 136. This identification guide, which is the nineteenth volume of the series Abc Taxa includes a taxonomic key to all 136 species, and gives key references, distribution maps, diagnoses, scaled photographs (where possible), and a synthesis of known ecological and depth information for each. The guide is designed to be comprehensive, well-illustrated and easy to use for both naturalists and professional biologists. Taxonomic terms, morphological characteristics and technical expressions are defined and described in detail, with illustrations to clarify some aspects of the terminology. A checklist of all species in the region is also included, and indicates which species are endemic (33), for which we report significant range extensions (23), which have been recorded as new to the South African fauna (28) since the previous monograph of Clark and Courtman-Stock (1976) and which have undergone taxonomic revisions since that time (28). This contribution delivers a copiously illustrated overview of the volume and details how it has been diffused in South Africa and beyond.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021