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Yuong-Nam Lee, Rinchen Barsbold, Philip Currie, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Hang-Jae Lee, Pascal Godefroit, François Escuillié, and Chinzorig Tsogtbaatar (2014)

Long-standing enigmas of a giant ornithomimosaur Deinocheirus mirificus resolved

Nature, 515:257-260.

The holotype of Deinocheirus mirificus was collected by the 1965 Polish-Mongolian Palaeontological Expedition at Altan Uul III in the southern Gobi of Mongolia1. Because the holotype consists mostly of giant forelimbs (2.4m in length) with scapulocoracoids2, Deinocheirus has remained one of the most mysterious dinosaurs for almost 50 years. The mosaic of ornithomimosaur and non-ornithomimosaur characters in the holotype has made it difficult to resolve the phylogenetic status of Deinocheirus3,4. Here we describe two new specimens of Deinocheirus that were discovered in the Nemegt Formation of Altan Uul IV in 2006 and Bugiin Tsav in 2009. The Bugiin Tsav specimen (MPC-D 100/127) includes a left forelimb clearly identifiable as Deinocheirus and is 6% longer than the holotype. The Altan Uul IV specimen (MPC-D 100/128) is approximately 74% the size of MPC-D 100/127. Cladistic analysis indicates that Deinocheirus is the largest member of the Ornithomimosauria; however, it has many unique skeletal features unknown in other ornithomimosaurs, indicating that Deinocheirus was a heavily built, non-cursorial animal with an elongate snout, tall neural spines, an expanded pelvis for strong muscle attachments, and a relatively short hind limb. Ecomorphological features in the skull, more than a thousand gastroliths, and stomach contents (fish remains) suggest Deinocheirus was a megaomnivore that lived in mesic environments.
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