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Mietje Germonpré, Mircea Udrescu, and Evelyne Fiers (2013)

The fossil mammals of Spy.

Anthropologica et Præhistorica, 123/2012:298-327.

The large faunal sample from Spy, a Belgian cave site famous for its Neandertal remains, is for the first time studied in detail. Some 11,600 bones were examined. A wide spectrum of Pleistocene species is present. Horse, cave hyena, mammoth, woolly rhinoceros and reindeer are the primary taxa. Hyena scavenging activities are indicated by the gnawed mammoth and rhinoceros postcranial bones and cervid antlers. Bears used the cave as a hibernation den evidenced by remains of cubs, and of female and male adult bears. Indications of human manipulation (cut marks, ochre traces, worked bone/tooth) occur especially on remains from foxes, mammoth and deer. The age profile of the mammoth is dominated by calves. This selective mortality suggests that they were hunted by prehistoric people. AMS dates range from c. 44,400 BP to c. 25,700 BP. The Spy bone assemblage therefore accumulated through a series of agents over a long period of the Pleniglacial.
RBINS Publication(s), Peer Review, International Redaction Board, RBINS Collection(s)
In: H. ROUGIER & P. SEMAL (ed.), Spy cave. 125 years of multidisciplinary research at the Betche aux Rotches (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre, Province of Namur, Belgium), Volume 1. Brussels, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Royal Belgian Society of Anthropology and Praehistory & NESPOS Society.
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