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You are here: Home / Library / No RBINS Staff publications / 3D geobody reconstruction and CO2-origin of Pleistocene travertine deposits in the Ballık area (SW Turkey)

Hannes Claes, Jeroen Soete, Koen Van Noten, H. El Desouky, M.M. Vanhaecke, M. Ozkul, and Rudy Swennen (2015)

3D geobody reconstruction and CO2-origin of Pleistocene travertine deposits in the Ballık area (SW Turkey)


The Denizli Basin in the West Anatolian Extensional Province in western Turkey is well-known for its numerous travertine occurrences. A combined sedimentological, diagenetic and geochemical investigation is executed on the Ece and Faber travertines of the Ballık area, the largest travertine site in the Denizli Basin. The first aim of this study is the reconstruction of a three-dimensional geo-model in combination with a detailed sedimentological description from fabric to lithotype, lithofacies and geobody scale, with a focus on integrating pore-typing. The second aim involves the delineation of the CO2-origin of ancient travertine precipitating waters. Peloidal, phyto and dendritic lithotypes dominate the studied travertines and honeycomb and bacteriform shapes and encrusted bacterial or fungal filaments related to their fabrics suggest a microbial influence. The environment of travertine precipitation evolved from dominantly sub-aqueous, as represented by the sub-horizontal and biostromal reed travertine facies, to dominantly sub-aerial in a thin water film, resulting in the cascade, waterfall and biohermal reed travertine facies. A general progradation of the travertine mound is indicated by the occurrence of stacked waterfall travertines. This results in sigmoidal clinoforms inside a general mound boundary configuration. Strontium and oxygen-carbon isotope signatures of the travertines point to a mixing mechanism of palaeofluids with deeply originated, heavy carbon CO2 with lighter carbon CO2 of shallow origin. These deposits can thus be considered as endogenic travertines. Carbonates of the Lycian Nappes acted as main parent carbon source rocks. The relative contribution of the lighter carbon isotopes is most likely to have originated from organic matter or soil CO2. This study provides a unique three-dimensional insight into the Ballık travertine architecture that potentially can be used as an analogue for subsurface travertine reservoirs worldwide and illustrates the importance of the combined use of δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr signatures in the delineation of the CO2-origin of travertine precipitating waters.
Peer Review, Impact Factor
  • DOI: 10.1111/sed.12188

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