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Article Reference The Upper Palaeolithic domestication of the dog
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2016
Article Reference The Upper Paleolithic beginnings of the domestication of the dog
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2017
Article Reference Isotopic Tracking of Trophic Relationships (Predation, Competition, Commensalism) between Paleolithic Humans and Predators
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2017
Inproceedings Reference Applying micro-CT imaging in the study of fossil sepiids and nautilids (Cephalopoda): examples from the Eocene of Belgium
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Inproceedings Reference Rapid Local Adaptations in an Invasive Frog (Xenopus laevis): the Importance of Functional Trait Measurements to Predict Future Invasions
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Inproceedings Reference Phylogenetic position of Olbitherium (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) based on new material from the early Eocene Wutu Formation
The genus Olbitherium was originally described in 2004 from the early Eocene of the Wutu Formation in China as a ‘perissodactyl-like’ archaic ungulate. Described material of Olbitherium consists of partial dentaries with lower cheek teeth, isolated upper molars, and an isolated upper premolar. Subsequent collaborative fieldwork by Belgian and Chinese researchers discovered new material including a partial skull, the anterior portion of the dentary, and associated postcrania. In their general form, the skull and postcrania are similar to those of early perissodactyls. The new material provides a more complete picture of the upper dentition, and the anterior dentary demonstrates the presence of three lower incisors and a large canine, both ancestral features for perissodactyls. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to test the affinities of Olbitherium, using a matrix of 321 characters and 72 taxa of placental mammals emphasizing perissodactyls and other ungulates. The results produced four shortest trees of 1981 steps. In all four trees, Olbitherium is the sister-taxon to all perissodactyls except Ghazijhippus. In contrast, when scoring was restricted to the originally described material, the results produced 16 shortest trees of 1970 steps, and Olbitherium nests well within Perissodactyla as sister-taxon to a clade including Lambdotherium and the brontotheriids Eotitanops and Palaeosyops. The new material not only supports the identification of Olbitherium as a perissodactyl, but it also suggests that it is significant for understanding the ancestral perissodactyl morphotype. Funding Sources U.S. National Science Foundation (DEB1456826), Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2009DFA32210), and Belgian Science Policy Office (BL/36/C54).
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Inproceedings Reference Brain evolution of early placental mammals: the impact of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction on the the neurosensory system of our distant relatives
The end-Cretaceous mass extinction, 66 million years ago, profoundly reshaped the biodiversity of our planet. After likely originating in the Cretaceous, placental mammals (species giving live birth to well-developed young) survived the extinction and quickly diversified in the ensuing Paleocene. Compared to Mesozoic species, extant placentals have advanced neurosensory abilities, enabled by a proportionally large brain with an expanded neocortex. This brain construction was acquired by the Eocene, but its origins, and how its evolution relates to extinction survivorship and recovery, are unclear, because little is known about the neurosensory systems of Paleocene species. We used high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning to build digital brain models in 29 extinct placentals (including 23 from the Paleocene). We added these to data from the literature to construct a database of 98 taxa, from the Jurassic to the Eocene, which we assessed in a phylogenetic context. We find that the Phylogenetic Encephalization Quotient (PEQ), a measure of relative brain size, increased in the Cretaceous along branches leading to Placentalia, but then decreased in Paleocene clades (taeniodonts, phenacodontids, pantodonts, periptychids, and arctocyonids). Later, during the Eocene, the PEQ increased independently in all crown groups (e.g., euarchontoglirans and laurasiatherians). The Paleocene decline in PEQ was driven by body mass increasing much more rapidly after the extinction than brain volume. The neocortex remained small, relative to the rest of the brain, in Paleocene taxa and expanded independently in Eocene crown groups. The relative size of the olfactory bulbs, however, remained relatively stable over time, except for a major decrease in Euarchontoglires and some Eocene artiodactyls, while the petrosal lobules (associated with eye movement coordination) decreased in size in Laurasiatheria but increased in Euarchontoglires. Our results indicate that an enlarged, modern-style brain was not instrumental to the survival of placental mammal ancestors at the end-Cretaceous, nor to their radiation in the Paleocene. Instead, opening of new ecological niches post-extinction promoted the diversification of larger body sizes, while brain and neocortex sizes lagged behind. The independent increase in PEQ in Eocene crown groups is related to the expansion of the neocortex, possibly a response to ecological specialization as environments changed, long after the extinction. Funding Sources Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions, European Research Council Starting Grant, National Science Foundation, Belgian Science Policy Office, DMNS No Walls Community Initiative.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Inproceedings Reference Identification of invasive Physa sp. from Inagro aquaculture facility
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Inproceedings Reference Un manuel de terrain pour standardiser les prélèvements des restes biologiques : une nécessité ou un luxe ? trois années d’expérience belge
Sur un chantier de fouille, l’archéologue est très fréquemment confronté à des vestiges organiques, ou biorestes. Qu’ils soient visibles ou invisibles, rares ou abondants, ils sont souvent source de questionnements : que prélever ? Où, comment et en quelle quantité ? Quelles sont les conditions de stockage idéales ¬? Quelle est la marche à suivre pour tamiser les sédiments ? Confrontés à des prélèvements très disparates, souvent à vue, ou sans réelle question de recherche ainsi qu’à des méthodologies d’extraction très différentes, l’équipe d’archéosciences de l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique a décidé de rédiger un ouvrage visant à répondre aux questions des archéologues et à standardiser les processus d’échantillonnage afin de pouvoir disposer d’un matériel d’étude pertinent et cohérent. Nous mentionnerons les problématiques qui ont concouru à la genèse de ce manuel par quelques exemples de terrain, parcourrons rapidement ce qu'il propose et ce qu'il n'aborde pas et ferons un bilan de son impact auprès des archéologues quelques années après sa première parution fin 2016.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Inproceedings Reference Towards Estimating the Biogeochemical Footprint of an Offshore Windfarm
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020