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Book Reference The stratigraphy and palaeobotany of the Late Pleistocene in Belgium
This abstract is not available in English. Résumé La stratigraphie des dépôts appartenant au Pleistocène supérieur de Belgique se base - tout comme c'est souvent le cas dans le nord de l'Europe - sur la présence dans le nord-ouest de la Belgique de formations fluviomarines d'âge eemien. Ces dernières sont caractérisées par la présence de Tapes senescens var. eemiensis ("Senescens Sande"). Leur passage latéral au sol de Rocourt a été observé. Ailleurs, les dépôts appelés "Tourbe et gravier" sont indiqués comme eemiens à la suite de leurs caractéristiques floristiques. Dans les dépôts appartenant à la dernière Glaciation ou Weichsel, les unités litho-stratigraphiques suivantes ont été distinguées: sable et gravier, limon et sable grossier, formations limono-tourbeuses formant le Pléniglaciaire A (conditions de sédimentation froid-humide); sables entrecroisés, sable ou limon de couverture 1 ou 2, formant le Pléniglaciaire B (conditions de sédimentation froid-sec) et finalement sable de couverture récent 1 ou 2 datant du Tardiglaciaire. Il existe plusieurs horizons périglaciaires importants: cailloutis 1 à petites fentes de gel se situant à la limite supérieure du dépôt limon et sable grossier; cailloutis 2 à fines fentes de gel à la limite supérieure des formations limono-tourbeuses et cailloutis 3 à grandes fentes de gel à la limite supérieure des sables ou limons de couverture 1. Il existe aussi des horizons pédologiques, caractéristiques: le sol de Rocourt datant de la fin de l'Eemien; le sol de Warneton datant de la période de sédimentation du limon et sable grossier; l'horizon pédologique cryoturbé (Kesselt - Zelzate -Paudorf), datant de la fin du Pléniglaciaire A; le sol de Stabroek datant du début du Tardiglaciaire. Nous sommes arrivés à la conclusion que la période du Weichsel est caractérisée par une sédimentation bicyclique: d'une part le Pléniglaciaire A caractérisé par des conditions de milieu froid-humide avec dominance de processus de solifluction et d'autre part l'ensemble Pléniglaciaire B-Tardiglaciaire caractérisé par des conditions de milieu froid-sec avec dominance de sédimentation éolienne. Les deux cycles sont en outre divisés par une période d'extrême froid (déflation) résultant respectivement dans l'établissement du cailloutis 1 à petites fentes de gel et du cailloutis 3 à grandes fentes de gel. Samenvatting De stratigrafie van de Boven-Pleistocene afzettingen in België sluit rechtstreeks aan bij deze van het Noord-Europese ruim. Deze bewering is gesteund op het voorkomen in het noordwesten van België van fluvio-marine Eem afzettingen met Tapes senescens (die de meest zuidelijk gekende uitbreiding vormen van de "Senescens Sande") en de rechtstreekse laterale correlatie van de interglaciale Rocourt bodem met deze marine formaties. Elders werden aan afzettingen, aangeduid als "Veen en grind", eveneens een Eem ouderdom toegekend op grond van palynologische bevindingen. De afzettingen behorende tot de Laatste Glaciatie periode of Weichsel worden in de volgende litho-stratigrafische eenheden onderverdeeld : zand en grind, leem en grof zand, (venige) leem afzettingen gezamenlijk het Pleniglaciaal A (koud-vochtige sedimentatie omstandigheden) opbouwend; kris-kras gelaagde zanden, dekzand en dekleem 1 of 2, gezamenlijk het Plenigla-ciaal B (koud-droge sedimentatie omstandigheden) opbouwend; laat dekzand 1 of 2 behorend tot het Laat-Glaciaal. Merkwaardige periglaciale horizonten vormen: keienvloer 1 met kleine vorstscheuren aan de bovengrens van de leem en grof zand afzetting; keienvloer 2 met fijne vorstscheuren aan de bovengrens van de (venige) leem afzettingen en keienvloer 3 met grote vorstscheuren aan de bovengrens van de dekzand of dekleem 1 afzettingen. Merkwaardige bodem-vegetatie horizonten treden op: op het einde van het Eem, de Rocourt bodem; tijdens de afzetting van het leem en grof zand, de Warneton bodem en op het einde van het Pleniglaciaal A, het cryoturbaat bodem horizont (Kesselt-Zelzate - Paudorf horizont); verder een Stabroek bodem bij de aanvang van het Laat-Glaciaal. Hieruit vloeit voort dat de Weichselperiode door een bi-cyclische sedimentatie wordt gekenmerkt: eensdeels de fase van het Pleniglaciaal A, gekenmerkt door koud-vochtige milieu omstandigheden met dominerend solifluctie processen en anderdeels de fase van het Pleniglaciaal B - Laat-Glaciaal, gekenmerkt door koud-droge milieu omstandigheden met overheersend eolische sedimentatie. Beide cycli worden verder gekenmerkt door het optreden van een extreem koude (deflatie) fase respectievelijk de keienvloer 1 met kleine vorstscheuren en de keienvloer 3 met grote vorstscheuren.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference The stratigraphy of Spy cave. A review of the available lithostratigraphic and archaeostratigraphic information.
This chapter presents a general review of the lithostratigraphy associated with the various excavations carried out at Spy cave since the end of the 19th century, incorporating what little information is available concerning sedimentogenesis. In addition to reviewing the types and possible causes underlying the mixed nature of the Spy archaeological material, the history of the published archaeostratigraphic interpretations of the site is presented alongside the different techno-complexes identified amongst the Spy material. Finally, the stratigraphic position of the Neandertal remains is considered and an overall stratigraphy is proposed that takes into consideration the available chronostratigraphic data.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference The stratotype of the Aalter Sands (Eocene of NW Belgium) : stratigraphy and calcareous nannoplankton.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference The synonymy of Haplochromis pharyngalis and Haplochromis petronius (Cichlidae)
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference The systematic position of Pamera noctuabunda Bergroth, 1907 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae), with a revised key to the species of Satlaria Harrington, 1980
Located in Library / RBINS collections by external author(s)
Article Reference The tempo of cetacean cranial evolution
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance
The timing of Neanderthal disappearance and the extent to which they overlapped with the earliest incoming anatomically modern humans (AMHs) in Eurasia are key questions in palaeoanthropology. Determining the spatiotemporal relationship between the two populations is crucial if we are to understand the processes, timing and reasons leading to the disappearance of Neanderthals and the likelihood of cultural and genetic exchange. Serious technical challenges, however, have hindered reliable dating of the period, as the radiocarbon method reaches its limit at ∼50,000 years ago. Here we apply improved accelerator mass spectrometry (14)C techniques to construct robust chronologies from 40 key Mousterian and Neanderthal archaeological sites, ranging from Russia to Spain. Bayesian age modelling was used to generate probability distribution functions to determine the latest appearance date. We show that the Mousterian ended by 41,030-39,260 calibrated years bp (at 95.4\% probability) across Europe. We also demonstrate that succeeding 'transitional' archaeological industries, one of which has been linked with Neanderthals (Châtelperronian), end at a similar time. Our data indicate that the disappearance of Neanderthals occurred at different times in different regions. Comparing the data with results obtained from the earliest dated AMH sites in Europe, associated with the Uluzzian technocomplex, allows us to quantify the temporal overlap between the two human groups. The results reveal a significant overlap of 2,600-5,400 years (at 95.4\% probability). This has important implications for models seeking to explain the cultural, technological and biological elements involved in the replacement of Neanderthals by AMHs. A mosaic of populations in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition suggests that there was ample time for the transmission of cultural and symbolic behaviours, as well as possible genetic exchanges, between the two groups.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference The tropiduchid planthopper genus Connelicita Wang & Bourgoin, 2015: two new species from Central Vietnam and new records (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Tropiduchidae)
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023 OA
Article Reference The tympanoperiotic complex of the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Article Reference The upper Eocene-Oligocene carnivorous mammals from the Quercy Phosphorites (France) housed in Belgian collections
The Quercy Phosphorites Formation in France is world famous for its Eocene to Miocene faunas, especially those from the upper Eocene to lower Oligocene, the richest of all. The latter particularly helped to understand the ‘Grande Coupure’, a dramatic faunal turnover event that occurred in Europe during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Fossils from the Quercy Phosphorites were excavated from the middle 19th century until the early 20th century in a series of sites and became subsequently dispersed over several research institutions, while often losing the temporal and geographical information in the process. In this contribution, we provide an overview and reassess the taxonomy of these barely known collections housed in three Belgian institutions: the Université de Liège, KU Leuven, and the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. We focus our efforts on the carnivorous mammals (Hyaenodonta and Carnivoramorpha) and assess the stratigraphic intervals covered by each collection. These fossils are derived from upper Eocene (Priabonian), lower Oligocene (Rupelian), and upper Oligocene (Chattian) deposits in the Quercy area. The richness of the three collections (e.g., the presence of numerous postcranial elements in the Liège collection), the presence of types and figured specimens in the Leuven collection, and some identified localities in the RBINS collection make these collections of great interest for further studies on systematics and the evolution of mammals around the ‘Grande Coupure’.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021