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Manual Reference Potential impact of wash water effluents from scrubbers on water acidification in the southern North Sea
Sulphur Oxides (SOx) in atmospheric ship emissions resulting from the burning of fuel with high sulphur content are known to be harmful to human and ecosystem health. Since January 1st 2020, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) lowered the previous limit for sulphur content in ship fuel from 3.5% m/m (mass by mass) to 0.50%. In the emission control areas (SECAs), the limit for the sulphur content had been set to 1.0% in 2010 and is kept below 0.1% since 2015. To comply with these limits, ship operators and owners can switch to fuel oil with lower sulphur content (LSFO). Alternatively, they can continue to burn fuel with high sulphur content by using technical means such as exhaust gas cleaning systems (or scrubbers) that reduce the atmospheric SOx emissions to a level equivalent to the required fuel oil sulphur limit. Scrubbers use sea water as cleaning media to remove SOx from the air emissions. There are three main categories of scrubbers: (1) the open-loop scrubbers that continuously discharge their wash water effluent, (2) the closed-loop scrubbers that treat the wash water before it is discharged, and (3) the hybrid scrubbers that can switch from open to closed modes. Scrubbers transform the air pollution into direct marine discharge. As hybrid scrubbers are more likely to discharge their sulphur waste into sea water rather than using land infrastructures, they are hereafter taken as open-loop ones. The effect of SOx contribution from ship on sea water pH is assessed for the English Channel and the southern North Sea by means of a marine biogeochemical model that includes a detailed description of the carbonate chemistry. This model allows testing different scenarios of SOx contribution resulting from the maritime traffic. To this end, realistic scenarios with ship traffic density estimated for the years 2019, 2020 and 2030, assuming a year-to-year ship traffic increase of 3.5% and several SOx pollution reduction strategies have been tested. An additional model simulation with null SOx contribution from the shipping sector is used as a reference level to comparatively assess the impact of each scenario on the sea water pH. Model results show a pH decrease of 0.004 units over the whole domain in case of a 2019-like ship traffic density with 15% of the fleet (in Gross Tonnage) using open-loop and hybrid scrubber systems. For future scenarios, assuming that 35% of the fleet is equipped with open-loop and hybrid scrubbers, the pH is estimated to decrease by 0.008 to 0.010 units in average over the whole domain. The magnitude of pH changes is not evenly distributed through space. According to the model results, the largest pH changes would occur in areas of high traffic density, such as along the Belgian and Dutch coasts and in the vicinity of large harbours such as Rotterdam. Ocean acidification rate attributed to climate change is estimated at 0.0017-0.0027 pH units per year. In comparison, the total pH decrease owing to the use of open-loop scrubbers would be equivalent to 2 to 4 years of climate change acidification on average over the whole domain, and to 10 to 50 years, in more local areas. The cumulative impact of ocean acidification due to climate change and to maritime traffic should therefore be considered in ecosystem assessment studies.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference Age of mud breccia from mud volcanoes in Academician Ridge, Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal is the only freshwater reservoir on Earth with gas-hydrate accumulations in its bottom sediments, partly due to the activity of mud volcanoes. This paper describes a group of mud volcanoes recently discovered on the slope of the Academician Ridge between the northern and central Lake Baikal basins. Our analysis of diatom skeletons in the mud breccia sampled from the study area shows a high abundance of Cyclotella iris et var. These extinct species were also discovered in a core sample from BDP-98 borehole. Based on the biostratigraphic and seis-mostratigraphic correlations, the age of the mud breccia in the studied mud volcanoes ranges from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (4.6 to 5.6 Ma). The correlations suggest that the material originated from a depth of less than 310 m below the lake bottom.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2017
Article Reference High-amplitude lake-level changes in tectonically active Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) revealed by high-resolution seismic reflection data
A total of 84 seismic profiles, mainly from the western and eastern deltas of Lake Issyk-Kul, were used to identify lake-level changes. Seven stratigraphic sequences were reconstructed, each containing a series of delta lobes that were formed during former lake-level stillstands or during slow lake-level increase or decrease. The lake level has experienced at least four cycles of stepwise rise and fall of 400202fm or more. These fluctuations were mainly caused by past changes in the atmospheric circulation pattern. During periods of low lake levels, the Siberian High was likely to be strong, bringing dry air masses from the Mongolian steppe blocking the midlatitude Westerlies. During periods of high lake levels, the Siberian High must have been weaker or displaced, and the midlatitude Westerlies could bring moister air masses from the Mediterranean and North Atlantic regions.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2017
Article Reference Letters to the twenty-first century botanist. Second series:“what is a seed?”–3. How did we get there? Palaeobotany sheds light on the emergence of seed
This paper discusses the main steps leading to the acquisition, during the Palaeozoic, of the seed habit. The earliest spermatophytes originated in the Late Devonian and produced small cupulate ovules characterized by an elaborated sporangial apex involved in pollination. The diversification of ovules during the Carboniferous led to a wider range of sizes and shapes, and an increasing importance of the integument. The earliest seeds containing embryos are reported in Carboniferous coniferophytes.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2018
Article Reference Preliminary data on Viséan (Carboniferous) corals and brachiopods from the strata between the Djebel Begaa and the Gara et Itima (Eastern Tafilalt, Morocco)
Located in Library / No RBINS Staff publications
Article Reference Microrestes gen. nov., a new genus in the Oriental stick insect tribe Datamini Rehn & Rehn, 1939 with a new species and a new combination (Phasmida: Heteropterygidae: Dataminae)
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference Lasioglossum dorchini (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae) a new species of bee from Israel
This paper describes a new species, Lasioglossum dorchini, occuring in sand dunes in Israel. It is close to Lasioglossum leptocephalum. Its phylogenetic relationships with the other species of the virens/littorale group are analyzed
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference The Diest Formation: a review of insights from the last decades
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference The composite Kortrijk section (W Belgium): a key reference for mid-Ypresian (Early Eocene) stratigraphy in the southern North Sea Basin.
The upper part of the Kortrijk Clay Formation (the Roubaix Clay and Aalbeke Clay Members of mid-Ypresian age) has been exposed in road and canal cuttings and clay quarries in the Kortrijk area (western Belgium), and penetrated by several cored boreholes. It is overlain disconformably by the Mont-Panisel Sand Member of the Hyon Sand Formation (upper middle Ypresian). The Roubaix Clay Member contains diverse and well-preserved calcareous nannofossils, dinoflagellate cysts, foraminifera, ostracods and other calcitic microfossils, and less well-preserved mollusc assemblages, while the Aalbeke Clay Member is secondarily decalcified. The calcareous nannofossil subdivision of upper NP11 and lower NP12 has been recognised in the Kortrijk area, and calibrated with the NW European mid-Ypresian dinoflagellate cyst, ostracod and planktonic foraminiferal zones and datums (e.g. Subbotina influx). Several medium-scale depositional sequences, with an estimated duration of 400 kyr or less, have been recorded. Their respective boundaries coincide with the resistivity maxima identified on the majority of the wireline log profiles of the Belgian Ypresian. Integrated biostratigraphic, magnetostratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic analysis enables correlation with other areas in Belgium, with the London Clay Formation of southern England, and with the standard chronostratigraphic scale. A marine erosion surface has been identified at the base of Unit 20 in the Kortrijk area (mid-Ypresian, early Biochron NP12, middle C24n.1n, ~ 52.8 Ma), corresponding to the first occurrence of estuarine channel-fill units in southern England. This indicates a brief but profound sea-level fall, either eustatically or tectonically controlled. The composite Kortrijk section is proposed as a reference section for the middle Ypresian in the southern North Sea Basin, and for similar settings in mid- to high-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (e.g. Kazakhstan and Crimea).
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2017
Book Reference Sondages à Hermalle-sous-Argenteau
Located in Library / RBINS collections by external author(s)