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Inproceedings Reference Near-field changes in the seabed and associated macrobenthic communities due to marine aggregate extraction on tidal sandbanks: a spatially explicit biophysical approach considering geological context and extraction regimes
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Inproceedings Reference The impact of sand extraction on the wave height near the Belgian coast
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Inbook Reference A review of the Gravettian collections from the excavation of Maisières "Canal" (Prov. of Hainaut, Belgium). A combined study of fossil and non-fossil animal resources for alimentary and technical exploitation
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Inproceedings Reference The RESPONSE project: Reactive transport modelling of point source contamination in soils and groundwater
Point source contaminations origin from historic or current activities and occur in a variety of forms, extents and contaminants involved (e.g. landfills, industrial facilities, storage tanks, disposal of hazardous waste). Point source contaminations may pose risks to human health and the environment; it is therefore important to develop/improve current methodologies to assess the migration potential of contaminants in groundwater. Groundwater quality monitoring around contaminated sites is typically done by sampling piezometers. Modelling approaches can help to predict the spatial and temporal evolution of contamination plumes, design remediation strategies and assess health and environmental risks. Reactive transport models can potentially improve the prediction of contaminant routes, as they explicitly account for changing geochemical environments and chemical reactions during transport. In spite of recent advances, real-world applications remain scarce as these require large numbers of site-specific parameters. The aim of the RESPONSE project is to improve the use of reactive transport models that simulate the fate of inorganic and organic contaminants in soils and groundwater. More specifically, this project aims to (1) identify the minimum amount of site-specific parameters needed to predict reactive transport of inorganic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) and (2) improve/simplify the modelling of transport of xenobiotic organic contaminants (XOC, e.g. hydrocarbons and pesticides). The transport of XOCs is particularly complex to model due to the effects and zonation of microbial activity at the plume fringe in polluted aquifers. The RESPONSE project focusses on typical groundwater pollution problems encountered around old municipal landfill sites and cemeteries. Municipal landfills can still release hazardous pollutants such as heavy metals and XOCs, even if they are covered by fresh ground layers after abandonment. Cemeteries can be considered a special case of landfill, releasing various compounds to the environment such as arsenic, mercury, bacteria, viruses and herbicides. Both location types are potential point sources for mixed groundwater pollution, typically including high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), heavy metals and XOCs. The methodology in this project involves both experimental and modelling aspects. During the first screening stage, groundwater samples were collected from shallow piezometers at fifteen contaminated sites across Belgium (municipal landfills and cemeteries). Also, an improved reactive transport model is built based on HYDRUS1D-MODFLOW-PHREEQC to explicitly account for the dynamic behaviour of chemical conditions at the soil-ground water interface. Next, based on laboratory analyses, three case-study sites will be selected for further modelling and testing.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2018
Book Reference BICEpS Annual report 2019 – Reinforcing Belgian ICES People
The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES; French: Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, CIEM) is an intergovernmental marine science organization that brings together the efforts and knowledge of 20 Member States, bordering the North Atlantic and the Arctic Circumpolar Zone, on physical oceanography, marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nowadays, more than 80 Belgian scientists are directly involved in the work of the 150 bodies and expert groups of ICES, which gather the expertise of more than 1500 scientists yearly, totalling up to 5000 scientists from over 700 marine institutes and organizations over the years. This important and often voluntary dedication of Belgian scientists to the work of ICES deserves more visibility among the Belgian scientific community itself and to policy makers.This is, among others, why the BICEpS initiative was launched in 2018. BICEpS general aim is to offer a platform to the Belgian ICES community to get to know each other, to improve collaboration and share information, and to promote ICES to the wider scientific community in Belgium. BICEpS Annual report 2019 presents the second year of activity of this initiative created to reinforce Belgian ICES people. The report targets marine scientists, marine managers and policy makers. It presents the results of the initiative so far. The report contains the list of Belgian ICES members in 2019 with their membership to the different ICES working groups, and the results of the second BICEpS Colloquium organised on 2 December 2019 and hosted by ILVO in Ghent (Summary of the sessions, abstracts of communications presented and list of participants). The abstracts of the colloquium are supplemented by a separate annex published online which assembles the PowerPoint presentations of the colloquium accessible at http://ices.dk/community/groups/Documents/BICEPS/BICEpS19-PPT-presentations.pdf This report is accessible on the ICES website at http://ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/BICEpS.aspx
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Book Reference Compilation of presentations at BICEpS colloquium 2019. Annexe to BICEpS Annual report 2019 – Reinforcing Belgian ICES People.
The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES; French: Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, CIEM) is an intergovernmental marine science organization that brings together the efforts and knowledge of 20 Member States, bordering the North Atlantic and the Arctic Circumpolar Zone, on physical oceanography, marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nowadays, more than 80 Belgian scientists are directly involved in the work of the 160 bodies and expert groups of ICES, which gather the expertise of more than 1500 scientists yearly, totalling up to 5000 scientists from over 700 marine institutes and organizations over the years. This important and often voluntary dedication of Belgian scientists to the work of ICES deserves more visibility among the Belgian scientific community itself and to policy makers.This is, among others, why the BICEpS initiative was launched in 2018. BICEpS general aim is to offer a platform to the Belgian ICES community to get to know each other, to improve collaboration and share information, and to promote ICES to the wider scientific community in Belgium. BICEpS Annual report 2019 presents the second year of activity of this initiative created to reinforce Belgian ICES people. The report targets marine scientists, marine managers and policy makers. It presents the results of the initiative so far. The report contains the list of Belgian ICES members in 2019 with their membership to the different ICES working groups, and the results of the second BICEpS Colloquium organised on 2 December 2019 and hosted by ILVO in Ghent (Summary of the sessions, abstracts of communications presented and list of participants). The abstracts of the colloquium are supplemented by a separate annex published online which assembles the PowerPoint presentations of the colloquium accessible at http://ices.dk/community/groups/Documents/BICEPS/BICEpS19-PPT-presentations.pdf The full report is accessible on the ICES website at http://ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/BICEpS.aspx
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2020
Article Reference Les monuments funéraires gallo-romains et l’emploi de la pierre dans la région occidentale de la Civitas Treverorum
1. Les monuments funéraires trévires 1.1. Introduction Les monuments funéraires des Trévires sont le sujet de deux projets de recherche, menés par l’Académie des Sciences Autrichienne en coopération avec l’Université de Luxembourg d’une part et l’Université de Francfort et le Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier d’autre part (Mahler, 2017). L’objectif de cette contribution est de présenter quelques réflexions préliminaires sur les analyses pétrographiques effectuées dans le cadre du projet austro-luxembourgeois. La cité des Trévires, située en Gaule Belgique, est appréciée depuis longtemps pour la quantité et la richesse de ses monuments funéraires de l’époque gallo-romaine, dont ceux provenant de Neumagen (von Massow, 1932) et d’Arlon (Espérandieu, 1913 ; Colling et al., 2009), pour ne citer que les ensembles les plus célèbres. Toutefois, cet ensemble n'a jamais fait l'objet d'un traitement scientifique et d'une évaluation exhaustive, étant donné que la zone d'étude est située à la frontière linguistique franco-allemande et comprend quatre États modernes (Kremer, 2018a ; Kremer, 2018b). De plus, les nouvelles découvertes des dernières décennies, comme celle du mausolée de Bertrange (Krier, 2003 ; Kremer, 2009) ou des monuments du Titelberg (Kremer, 2019), apportent des éclairages nouveaux sur l'évolution de la situation dans cette région et invitent à une enquête approfondie de l’ensemble des monuments connus. Dans le cadre du projet austro-luxembourgeois sur la partie occidentale de la civitas Treverorum, des analyses pétrographiques ont été initiées d’abord afin d'assurer une caractérisation et une détermination de provenance correctes des matériaux pierreux utilisés, ensuite afin d'obtenir des données nouvelles sur des questions d'organisation d'ateliers, de chronologie ou de relations économiques. Nous espérons contribuer à une meilleure compréhension de l'utilisation de la pierre dans le Nord de la Gaule, où la région trévire constituait une tache blanche sur la carte (Boulanger & Moulis, 2018). Une sélection représentative a été faite parmi les monuments accessibles de la zone de recherche ; toutefois, en l’absence d’exhaustivité, les résultats concernant la fréquence d'apparition des matériaux n’ont pas de valeur statistique. Ont été analysés les blocs de monuments funéraires exposés dans les musées de Luxembourg (MNHA), Arlon, Virton, Buzenol et Trèves. Des prélèvements ont été réalisés sur une série d’échantillons mise à disposition par le Centre national de recherche archéologique (CNRA) du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. - Joint project FWF/FNR I 2269-G25: « Funerary Monuments from Western civitas Treverorum in an Interregional Context. The Inter-Connected Evaluation of a Socio-Historically Relevant Category of Finds ». Direction de projet : Gabrielle Kremer, ÖAI/ÖAW (lead) et Andrea Binsfeld, UniLu. Nous remercions les membres de l’équipe Sophie Insulander, Jean Krier, Sebastian Mühling et Christine Ruppert ainsi que les collègues du CNRA et du MNHA Luxembourg, du IAL et des Musées d’Arlon, Virton et Trèves. - Projet financé par la DFG : « Römische Grabdenkmäler aus Augusta Treverorum im überregionalen Vergleich: mediale Strategien sozialer Repräsentation ». Direction de projet : Anja Klöckner et Markus Scholz, Univ. Francfort, et Marcus Reuter, RLM Trier.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Article Reference Economie de la pierre meulière sur la Meuse moyenne au tournant de notre ère (la Tène finale – haut-Empire romain) : les meules en poudingue de Burnot.
Introduction L’étude du mobilier en pierre fait désormais partie des analyses incontournables après toute opération de fouille. Elle apporte des informations sur l’approvisionnement en matières premières, sur leur usage et sur les modalités de leur mise en forme. Abordée de manière diachronique, elle permet de déceler les variations des pratiques techniques et économiques au cours du temps. L’étude des meules est devenue emblématique de cette discipline géo-archéologique puisqu’elle met en évidence des dynamiques économiques qui ont des répercussions sur le cadre social des populations. Au cours du temps, des roches spécifiques ont été sélectionnées pour répondre à des besoins précis, en lien avec l’un des secteurs les plus primordiaux qui soient : celui de l’alimentation. Un véritable système de recherche de la ressource, d’exploitation, de production, de transport et de commercialisation s’est établi pour approvisionner des populations plus ou moins proches des lieux de production et désireuses d’acquérir et d’utiliser des marchandises efficaces et parfois esthétiques. Au début du 5e siècle av. J.-C. dans le nord-est de la péninsule ibérique, les techniques de mouture bénéficient d’un progrès qui s’étend progressivement à toute l’Europe de l’ouest, à savoir le passage du mouvement alternatif (moulin va-et-vient) au mouvement rotatif. Le moulin rotatif arrive en Gaule du nord à partir de la seconde moitié du 3e siècle av. J.-C. (La Tène moyenne), mais le moulin reste encore domestique. Le saut technologique que l’on observe durant l’époque gauloise est donc plus qualitatif que quantitatif : les conditions de la préparation alimentaire s’améliorent nettement, dans un cadre socio-économique qui varie peu, celui du foyer familial. Ce n’est que dans la première moitié du 1er siècle de notre ère, avec le regroupement des populations dans les villes, les camps militaires et les grands établissements ruraux, que s’installent de grands moulins à eau ou à traction animale dont les meules commencent à être produites par les ateliers régionaux. Ces derniers s’étaient déjà adaptés au passage du moulin va-et-vient au moulin rotatif : malgré une courte période d’une à deux générations pendant laquelle ont été préférées des roches tendres , les matériaux durs exploités au moins depuis le Néolithique pour la confection de meules va-et-vient sont repris en main dès la fin de La Tène moyenne pour produire des meules rotatives. En Germanie inférieure et dans le Nord de la Gaule, la plupart des carrières de meules rotatives identifiées ont ainsi livré des ébauches de meules va-et-vient antérieures à la fin de l’époque gauloise : respectivement dans les coulées volcaniques de l’Eifel (HÖRTER, 1994 ; MANGARTZ, 2008), dans le secteur d’Hirson/Macquenoise (Aisne/Hainaut - PICAVET et al., 2018) et à Lustin (Namur) dont les gisements nous intéressent ici. Si toutes ces carrières ont produit des meules rotatives à La Tène finale (La Tène moyenne est mal appréhendée en Belgique), puis à l’époque romaine, les carrières elles-mêmes et leurs ratés de fabrication sont encore méconnus. Un travail de prospection de longue haleine en milieu forestier a pour objectif de les caractériser. Les carrières de Lustin, situées dans le Bois des Acremonts et dans le Bois de Nîmes (prov. Namur, Belgique), ont été parcourues par Dominique Daoust (fig. 1). Il a identifié plusieurs dizaines d’ébauches de meules rotatives manuelles dont les dimensions évoquent une datation gauloise et/ou romaine précoce (autour d’une quarantaine de centimètres, parfois moins). Le travail d’analyse de ces ébauches, toujours en cours, permet aujourd’hui de préciser les modalités de l’exploitation du conglomérat rouge dit « Poudingue de Burnot » autour de la moyenne vallée de la Meuse à ces périodes anciennes. Les productions de ces carrières sont essentiellement connues par leur diffusion sur les sites de consommation en Belgique et dans le Nord de la France. Leur reconnaissance est assurée par les descriptions pétrographiques des géologues Gilles Fronteau et Éric Goemaere, qui pointent la Formation de Burnot (unité lithostratigraphique autrefois appelée « Poudingue de Burnot » et d’âge burnotien, étage aujourd’hui tombé en désuétude : DEJONGHE et al., 2006) et nous autorisent à identifier les niveaux géologiques d’origine du matériau. Notons que la Formation de Rivière qui la surmonte directement peut apparaître dans les mêmes carrières et a pu fournir des meules ponctuellement. À la faveur d’une archéologie préventive dynamique et à l’issue de deux thèses de doctorat (RENIERE, 2018 ; PICAVET, 2019), l’enregistrement de nombreux produits finis géolocalisés dessine les contours de leur aire de répartition en Gaule du nord, tout en fournissant des appuis chronologiques solides. Recensées entre La Tène finale et le Haut-Empire romain, parfois jusqu’au début du 3e siècle, les meules en Poudingue de Burnot occupent ainsi une région située entre celle approvisionnée par les carrières dites de Macquenoise à l’ouest (Hirson/Macquenoise : PICAVET et al., 2018) et celle qui reçoit les productions l’Eifel à l’est (Mayen, Rhénanie-Palatinat : MANGARTZ, 2008), alors que les grès quartzitiques tertiaires sont majoritaires au nord et au nord-ouest chez les Ménapiens au Haut-Empire (RENIERE et al., 2016). Faisant le lien entre les carrières et les produits de consommation rejetés après usage, une cargaison de produits semi-finis draguée dans la Meuse au début du 20e siècle évoque enfin leur transport aval vers la ville romaine de Namur où l’on peut envisager la présence d’ateliers de finition et de redistribution (cf infra).
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Inproceedings Reference Ranking CO2 storage capacities and identifying their technical, economic and regulatory constraints: A review of methods and screening criteria.
One of the greatest challenges of the last decades in the fight against climate change has been to achieve net-zero emissions by mid-century. According to the US EPA (2016), in 2014, global anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) accounted for ~64% of the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) plays an irreplaceable part as a mitigation technology that avoids CO2 emissions at their source and bridges the transition into a non-carbon-based energy future. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that the need to store CO2 will grow from 40 Mt/y at present to more than 5000 Mt/y by 2050. Additionally, in the IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario, which aims for global net-zero CO2 emissions from the energy sector by 2070, CCS needs to become a global industry supporting emissions reductions across the overall energy system. CCS technologies essentially consist of capturing and compressing the CO2 at the source and then transport it towards deep suitable rock formations where it is injected to be permanently stored. The key to successful and permanent CO2 storage is the proper analysis and characterization of the reservoir and seal formation. Among the types of reservoir suitable for CO2 storage are unmined coal beds, depleted oil and gas fields, EOR/EGR, saline aquifers, man-made caverns, and basaltic formations (IPCC, 2005). The storage capacity of any of these reservoirs is the subsurface commodity whose quantities and properties are assessed when existing data is provided. Capacity estimations bring their own level of uncertainty and complexity according to the scale at which they are addressed and the nature of the geological conditions of the reservoir. This degree of uncertainty should be accounted for in every estimation (Bradshaw et al., 2007) Resource classification systems (RCS) are frameworks that establish the principles and boundaries for each level of capacity assessment. By making use of these frameworks, it is possible to properly allocate the stage of development of a resource (United Nations, 2020). For every level of assessment, the principles of the estimation change and so do the scale and purpose. As the analysis moves forward, a prospective site develops and exhaustive information is acquired, initial estimations are adjusted, and uncertainty is likely to reduce. Additionally, different economic, technical, regulatory, environmental and societal factors are integrated into the assessment to bring the estimations under present conditions. For instance, if the storage capacity is to be matched with a CO2 source, detailed simulations and analyses regarding injectivity, supply rate, potential routes and economic distances must be performed to achieve a realistic estimation. However, an assessment where the main goal is to merely quantify the space available to store CO2 in a reservoir, does not consider the aforementioned limitations and will carry higher risk and uncertainty in its estimation (Bradshaw et al., 2007). Even though resource classification systems provide a solid foundation for CCS projects, they do not provide the input parameters and analyses needed to reach every level of assessment. This is why storage capacity estimation methodologies go hand in hand with RCS given that the former can give information related to the parameters and constraints considered in the estimation. No standard process has been proposed that can be followed from the starting level of a CO2 storage capacity assessment until a fully developed carbon storage resource; that is, a CO2 storage site ready to become fully operational. This paper aims to develop a methodology where the fundamental steps needed to go through every level of the resource classification systems are standardized. This methodology intends to serve as a general baseline that, regardless of the geological settings and techno-socio-economic conditions, can be adopted for any CCS assessment. The proposed methodology is built by reviewing the available capacity estimation methods for every level of assessment and identifying social, technical and economic aspects that come into play as the resource is being developed. Considering that capacity estimation methodologies can vary their approach even for the same level of assessment, the rationales behind them are expected to be determined. Such rationales can be related to in-place policy restrictions, geographical economic behavior, or the nature of the parameters contemplated. Additionally, PSS, an in-house developed tool that can assess CO2 storage reservoirs at different levels, will be proposed within the methodology. This tool is a bottom-up geotechnical and economic forecasting simulator that can generate source-sink matching for CCS projects, where technical, economic, and geological uncertainties are handled through a Monte Carlo approach for limited foresight (Welkenhuysen et al., 2016). Acknowledgements This research is carried out under the LEILAC2 project, which receives funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement number 884170. The LEILAC2 consortium consists of: Calix Europe SARL, HeidelbergCement AG, Ingenieurbüro Kühlerbau Neustad GmbH (IKN), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI), Geological Survey of Belgium (RBINS-GSB), ENGIE Laborelec, Port of Rotterdam, Calix Limited, CIMPOR-Indústria de Cimentos SA and Lhoist Recherche et Development SA. References Bradshaw, J., Bachu, S., Bonijoly, D., Burruss, R., Holloway, S., Christensen, N. P., & Mathiassen, O. M. (2007). CO2 storage capacity estimation: Issues and development of standards. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 1(1), 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1750-5836(07)00027-8 IPCC. (2005). Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/carbon-dioxide-capture-and-storage/ United Nations. (2020). United Nations Framework Classification for Resources: Update 2019. UN. https://doi.org/10.18356/44105e2b-en US EPA. (2016). Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data. US EPA. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data Welkenhuysen, K., Brüstle, A.-K., Bottig, M., Ramírez, A., Swennen, R., & Piessens, K. (2016). A techno-economic approach for capacity assessment and ranking of potential options for geological storage of CO2 in Austria. Geologica Belgica. http://dx.doi.org/10.20341/gb.2016.012
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Inproceedings Reference Deep Geothermal Energy Extraction, a Review on Environmental Hotspots with Focus on Geo-technical Site Conditions
Knowledge on the environmental impacts of geothermal energy is of major importance to understand the role this technology could play in the transition towards sustainable energy systems. Life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology is a widely used tool for assessing the environmental impacts of products and systems, which has been implemented numerous times on geothermal systems. Previous reviews on geothermal LCA studies identify large variability on the reported environmental impacts. In this work we aim to provide a more in-depth analysis to explain the variability across the different LCAs. We review 28 LCA studies on geothermal energy published between 2005 and 2020, following a four step reviewing sequence; in step 1 we identify the LCA methodological choices and the plant geo-technical characteristics, in step 2 we identify the LCA results and the LCI inputs, in step 3 we perform contribution analysis based on the reported results and in step 4 we investigate the sensitivity and scenario analysis performed in the studies. If the data is available we triangularly evaluate the reported impacts considering a) the plants’ geo-technical characteristics, b) the hotspot analyses results and c) the Life cycle inventory (LCI) inputs. We focus our analysis on the six most frequently assessed impact indicators (GWP, AP, HTP, FETP, CED, ADP)* and distinguish between the different energy conversion technologies used for geothermal energy exploitation. This way we aim to provide a more transparent picture on the variability of environmental impacts across the LCAs by focusing on the environmental hotspots and on the cause-effect relationships between geo-technical parameters and the environmental impacts. We also aim for drawing LCA guidelines for future LCA studies on geothermal systems and proposing methods for impact mitigation. The variability on the LCA results is caused by differences on the choices of the LCA practitioners, on the energy conversion technologies used, on geological parameters and on plant design parameters. Most studies focus on the GWP and AP impacts, while information for the rest of the impacts is much more limited. For flash and dry steam power plants the direct emissions of non-condensable gases (NCGs) emerging can cause high GWP, AP, FETP and HTP impacts depending on the geofluid’s composition. The CED and ADP impacts are dominated by the steel and diesel consumption during the development of the wells. Thus differences on the geo-technical parameters determining the power output and the total material and energy consumption cause the variability on the reported results. Direct emissions of NCGs do not emerge in plants utilizing binary technology. In these plants the development of the wells dominates the impacts and this phenomenon is more intense when EGS-binary plants are investigated due to the large depth drilled. Also the production of the working fluid used in the ORC and its annual leakage can highly affect the GWP impact in these plants depending on the type of working fluid used. In heating plants high amounts of grid-electricity are needed for the plant operation as no power is produced. Therefore differences in the fossil-fuel-intensity of the electricity mix supplying the plant can result in large variability. The choice of the LCA practitioner to include or not the heat distribution network in the boundaries of the system also affects the results, while a significant portion of the impacts is caused during the development of the wells. Combined heat and power plants using flash or binary technology present similar results. However the co-production of heat and power is expected to lead to some benefits. A direct correlation between the GHGs and the NH3/H2S direct emissions with the GWP and AC impacts, respectively, is observed for flash and dry steam power plants. Direct emissions are determined by the geofluid composition which highly varies between different reservoirs. For mitigating these impacts the installation of abatement systems shall be considered, while the identification of the geofluid composition and of the natural emissions emerging prior to the plant development is suggested for estimating the actual anthropogenic emissions. For plants utilizing binary technology and heating plants it is observed that higher capacity generally leads to lower GWP and AP impacts per functional unit. The capacity is a product function of the temperature and production flow. Similar observation can be extracted for the temperature while this is not the case for the flow. No clear correlation can be seen between the impacts and the depth. This is because larger depths lead –on the one hand– to higher impacts because of higher material and energy consumption which are compensated –on the other hand– to the increase on the fluid temperature and flow. For mitigating impacts caused during the construction phase the use of renewable energy sources for supplying the machinery used is suggested, while proper fluid re-injection should be designed for keeping the capacity constant during the operation. Also for binary plants the working fluid shall be selected such that its GWP impact is low, while for heating plants the installation of a small ORC unit shall be considered if the conditions are appropriate for meeting the pumping needs of the plant. The reviewed studies show that geothermal energy exploitation can lead to significant environmental benefits compared to fossil sources, as most of the times the impacts caused by geothermal plants are in the range of other renewable sources. Further research is needed on deep geothermal energy exploitation to better understand its environmental impacts. A significant portion of the impacts is caused during the operation of the plants regardless of the technology used (direct emissions, electricity consumption, working fluid losses, make-up well drilling). All of the LCA studies reviewed are static LCAs. Thus a dynamic LCA framework considering the time aspect is needed for better estimations of the environmental impacts. Also consequential LCAs on geothermal energy plants need to be conducted in order to assess how the global environmental impacts may change by the wider implementation of geothermal energy. In addition, future LCA studies shall also focus on environmental impacts other than the GWP as information regarding them is limited. Finally the sustainability of geothermal investments is to be further explored by investigating the social impacts of geothermal development and comparing them to other energy sources but also the financial aspect of such investments. Acknowledgments This research is carried out under the DESIGNATE project, which receives funding from the BELSPO BRAIN-be 2.0 research program under contract nr B2/191/P1/DESIGNATE. * GWP: Global Warming Potential, AP: Acidification Potential, HTP: Human Toxicity Potential, FETP: Freshwater EcoToxicity Potential, CED: Cumulative Energy Demand, ADP: Abiotic resources Depletion Potential
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021