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Article Reference Tussen steenontginner en steenbewerker, een gedeelde verantwoordelijkheid voor handhavingvan het bouwkundig erfgoed, vandaag en morgen
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Article Reference De toepassing van natuursteen voor de bouw en de restauratie van het Justitiepaleis van Brussel
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Article Reference Protected yet unmanaged: insights into the ecological status of conservation priority stony reefs in Belgian waters based on the integrative use of remote sensing technologies
Stony reefs are ecologically important, providing irreplaceable ecosystem services. These fragile environments are recognised as conservation priorities by all relevant global and European policies. Bottom-contacting fi sheries are an important source of anthropogenic disturbance to the sea fl oor ’ s physical and ecological integrity having immediate and destructive consequences on stony reefs and compromising ecological functions. This study, aimed to assess the ecological status (community composition and functions) of two stony reef areas -Northwest and Hinder Banks study sites -in Belgian waters using multiple remote sensing tools. Insights on the study sites ’ geomorphological context and fi shing patterns were gained using echo-sounding and publicly available satellite data. Video-based benthic community data were assessed against the exposure to fi shing pressure using a trait-based approach linked to the biotas ’ resistance and recovery potential. In the Northwest study site, between 2019 and 2022 there was a signi fi cant decline in the abundance of benthic species classi fi ed with low resistance and recovery potential to trawling. Conversely, there was a notable increase in species with moderate scores. During the same period, this site experienced an eight-fold increase in fi shing effort and the hydroacoustic data revealed the presence of several trawl-marks in 2022. Similar changes in benthic communities were observed in the Hinder Banks too. Here, the abundance of species with low resistance and recovery potential was signi fi cantly lower in locations that were geomorphologically exposed to trawling compared to sheltered ones. Exposed locations had a higher abundance of opportunistic species, with moderate to high scores. The presence of several trawl marks on the sea fl oor was observed in the exposed locations, corresponding to fi shing hotspots identi fi ed in the satellite data. Trawling activities marginally impacted richness and total abundance, but negatively altered benthic functional composition. The fi ndings of this study provide scienti fi c evidence of the detrimental impact of bottom-contacting fi sheries on conservation priority biotopes and argues against the coexistence of such activities with Marine Protected Areas. The results of our investigation are of interest to environmental managers for the adequate implementation of environmental legislation in the face of rapid and widespread anthropogenic changes.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Article Reference SEADETECT: developing an automated detection system to reduce whale-vessel collision risk
With the continuous intensification of marine traffic worldwide, whale-vessel collisions at sea (or “ship strikes”) have become one of the primary causes of mortality for cetaceans and a widely recognised cause of concern for human safety and economic losses. The Mediterranean Sea is a global hotspot for whale-vessel collisions, with one of the highest rates involving large cetaceans, especially the endangered fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Evidence indicates that both species are experiencing higher chances of a fatal collision than what predictions have estimated so far, with ship strikes being the main human-induced threat in the area. Regional and international organisations have stressed the need to address the issue by investigating the projected impacts of ship strikes on whale populations and by identifying possible mitigation measures to reduce chances of collision. Amongst the most popular and feasible options, there is the improvement of animal detection during navigation. Here, we present SEADETECT, a LIFE project that aims at developing an automated detection system to reduce vessel collision risk with marine mammals and unidentified floating objects (UFOs), combining state-of-the-art and novel technologies with existing approaches in the study of large whale ecology. This detection system consists of three elements; an automated onboard detection system composed of several sensors, a real- time passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) network at sea and a real-time detection-sharing and alert system (REPCET®). In this paper, we propose the development of a mitigation measure framework tailored for the issue of collision with fin and sperm whales in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, but that has the transferability features necessary for its application in other high-risk areas for ship strikes worldwide.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Article Reference The Macquenoise sandstone (Devonian – Lochkovian), a suitable raw material for ancient querns and millstones: quarries, properties, manufacture and distribution in France and Belgium
ABSTRACT. For some years, a French-Belgian team of archaeologists and geologists is investigating the provenance of ancient quern-stones and millstones. Their study revealed the frequent occurrence of particular coarse sandstones derived from Lower Devonian strata in the Ardenne region, known as either the “Arkose of Haybes” by geologists or the “Arkose of Macquenoise” by archaeologists. Material for Late Iron Age and Roman quern-stones and millstones was quarried from open pits located west of the border between France and Belgium, between the Belgian village of Macquenoise (Commune of Momignies, Province of Hainaut) and the French town of Hirson (Aisne Department, Hauts-de-France region). This paper describes the raw materials, presents the different types of grindstones produced through historical times and provides a detailed diffusion map of the millstones. KEYWORDS: arkose, Lochkovian, milling stone, Gallo-Roman quarry, distribution area, geoheritage.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2018
Article Reference Assessment of PRISMA water reflectance using autonomous hyperspectral radiometry
Hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) derived from PRISMA in the visible and infrared range was evaluated for two inland and coastal water sites using above-water in situ reflectance measurements from autonomous hyper- and multispectral radiometer systems. We compared the Level 2D (L2D) surface reflectance, a standard product distributed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), as well as outputs from ACOLITE/DSF, now adapted for processing of PRISMA imagery. Near-coincident Sentinel-3 OLCI (S3/OLCI) observations were also compared as it is a frequent data source for inland and coastal water remote sensing applications, with a strong calibration and validation record. In situ measurements from two optically diverse sites in Italy, equipped with fixed autonomous hyperspectral radiometer systems, were used: the REmote Sensing for Trasimeno lake Observatory (RESTO), positioned in a shallow and turbid lake in Central Italy, and the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT), located 15 km offshore from the lagoon of Venice in the Adriatic Sea, which is characterised by clear to moderately turbid waters. 20 PRISMA images were available for the match-up analysis across both sites. Good performance of L2D was found for RESTO, with the lowest relative (Mean Absolute Percentage Difference, MAPD  25\%) and absolute errors (Bias  0.002) in the bands between 500 and 680 nm, with similar performance for ACOLITE. The lowest median and interquartile ranges of spectral angle (SA  8°) denoted a more similar shape to the RESTO in situ data, indicating pigment absorption retrievals should be possible. ACOLITE showed better statistical performance at AAOT compared to L2D, providing R2  0.5, Bias  0.0015 and MAPD  35\%, in the range between 470 and 580 nm, i.e. in the spectral range with highest reflectances. The addition of a SWIR based sun-glint correction to the default atmospheric correction implemented in ACOLITE further improved performance at AAOT, with lower uncertainties and closer spectral similarity to the in situ measurements, suggesting that ACOLITE with glint correction was able to best reproduce the spectral shape of in situ data at AAOT. We found good results for PRISMA Rrs retrieval in our study sites, and hence demonstrated the use of PRISMA for aquatic ecosystem mapping. Further studies are needed to analyse performance in other water bodies, over a wider range of optical properties.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference Changes in chlorophyll concentration and phenology in the North Sea in relation to de‐eutrophication and sea surface warming
At least two major drivers of phytoplankton production have changed in recent decades in the North Sea: sea surface temperature (SST) has increased by ~ 1.6°C between 1988 and 2014, and the nitrogen and phosphorus loads from surrounding rivers have decreased from the mid‐1980s onward, following reduction policies. Long time series spanning four decades (1975–2015) of nutrients, chlorophyll (Chl), and pH measurements in the Southern and Central North Sea were analyzed to assess the impact of both the warming and the de‐eutrophication trends on Chl. The de‐eutrophication process, detectable in the reduction of nutrient river loads to the sea, caused a decrease of nutrient concentrations in coastal waters under riverine influence. A decline in annual mean Chl was observed at 11 out of 18 sampling sites (coastal and offshore) in the period 1988–2016. Also, a shift in Chl phenology was observed around 2000, with spring bloom formation occurring earlier in the year. A long time series of pH in the Southern North Sea showed an increase until the mid‐1980s followed by a rapid decrease, suggesting changes in phytoplankton production that would support the observed changes in Chl. Linear correlations, however, did not reveal significant relationships between Chl variability and winter nutrients or SST at the sampling sites. We propose that the observed changes in Chl (annual or seasonal) around 2000 are a response of phytoplankton dynamics to multiple stressors, directly or indirectly influenced by de‐eutrophication and climate warming.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference Salinity predicts the distribution of chlorophyll a spring peak in the southern North Sea continental waters
In the North Sea, the coastal waters of Belgium and The Netherlands regularly exhibit intense spring phytoplankton blooms where species such as Phaeocystis recurrently form a potential ecological nuisance. In the Belgian and Dutch continental shelves (BCS and DCS), we observe a direct correlation between the chlorophyll a spring maximum (Chlmax) and the nutrients (DIN and DIP) available for the bloom. As the nutrients are themselves strongly correlated with salinity, a rationale is developed to predict Chlmax from winter salinity. The proposed rationale is first tested in a theoretical case with a 3D-biogeochemical model (3D-MIRO&CO). The method is then applied to independent sets of in situ observations over 20 years in the BCS and the DCS, and to continuous FerryBox data in April 2008. Linear regressions explain the relationships between winter nutrients and winter salinity (R2 = 0.88 to 0.97 with model results, and R2 = 0.83 to 0.96 with in situ data). The relationship between Chlmax and the available nutrients across the salinity gradient is also explained by yearly linear regressions (R2 = 0.82 to 0.94 with model results, and R2 = 0.46 to 0.98 with in situ data). Empirical ‘DIP requirement’ and ‘DIN requirement’ for the spring biomass bloom formation are derived from the latter relationships. They depend i.a. on the losses from phytoplankton during the spring bloom formation, and therefore show some interannual variability (8–12% for DIP and 13–20% for DIN). The ratio between nutrient requirements allows predicting in winter which nutrient will eventually limit the spring biomass bloom along the salinity gradient. DIP will generally be limiting in the coastal zone, whereas DIN will generally be limiting offshore, the switch occurring typically at salinity 33.5 in the BCS and 33.6 in the DCS. N reduction should be prioritized to limit Phaeocystis in the coastal zone, with target winter DIN:DIP ratios below 34.4 molN molP−1 in the BCS, or 28.6 molN molP− 1 in the DCS.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference Control of phytoplankton production by physical forcing in a strongly tidal, well-mixed estuary
A zero-dimensional model for phytoplanktonicproduction in turbid, macro-tidal, well-mixed estuaries is proposed. It is based on the description of light-dependentalgal growth, phytoplankton respiration and mortality. The model is forced by simple time-functions for solar irradiance, water depth and light penetration. The extinction coefficientis directly related to the dynamics of suspended particulate matter. Model results show that the description of phyto-plankton growth must operate at a time resolution sufficientlyhigh to describe the interference between solarly and tidallydriven physical forcing functions. They also demonstrate that in shallow to moderately deep systems, simulations using averaged, instead of time-varying, forcing functions lead to significant errors in the estimation of phytoplankton productivity. The highest errors are observed when the temporalpattern of light penetration, linked to the tidal cycle of solidssettling and resuspension, is neglected. The model has alsobeen applied using realistic forcing functions typical of two locations in the Scheldt estuary. Model results are consistentwith the typical phytoplankton decay observed along the lon-gitudinal, seaward axis in the tidal river and oligohaline part of this estuary.
Located in Library / No RBINS Staff publications
Article Reference Van mens tot mens
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications