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Article Reference Editorial. Two urgent topics: climate change and biodiversity loss
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Inbook Reference The first record of the genus Trichogomphus Burmeister from Nepal, and a checklist of Nepalese Dynastinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2021
Article Reference Four new genera and five new species of “Heterocypris” from Western Australia (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprinotinae).
Five new species in four new genera from Western Australia are described. All species have valve characters that are reminiscent of the genus Heterocypris Claus, 1892 and also have similar valve outlines, with highly arched valves. However, all species have a hemipenis morphology that is totally different from the typical form in Heterocypris. In Patcypris gen. nov. (with type species P. outback gen. et sp. nov.), the lateral lobe is large and shaped as a pickaxe, while the medial lobe is divided into two distal lobes. Trilocypris gen. nov. (with type species T. horwitzi gen. et sp. nov.) is characterised by a hemipenis that has three, instead of two, distal lobes. In Bilocypris gen. nov. (with type species B. fortescuensis gen. et sp. nov. and a second species, B. mandoraensis gen. et sp. nov.), the lateral lobe of the hemipenis is spatulate, rather than boot-shaped, and the medial lobe is bilobed. Billcypris gen. nov. (with type species B. davisae gen. et sp. nov.) has a large and sub-rectangular lateral lobe and a pointed medial lobe. We discuss the taxonomic value of the traditional and new morphological characters and speculate that the diversity of this cluster of genera and species may be greater than currently known.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference On a new species of the genus Cyprinotus (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from a temporary wetland in New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean), with a reappraisal of the genus
The New Caledonia archipelago is known for its high level of endemism in both faunal and floral groups. Thus far, only 12 species of non-marine ostracods have been reported. After three expeditions to the main island of the archipelago (Grande Terre), about four times as many species were found, about half of which are probably new. Here, we describe a new species, Cyprinotus drubea sp. nov., which is characterised mainly by the hyper-developed dorsal hump on the right valve, much larger than in any other known Recent species in this genus. After a literature study of the other presumed species in Cyprinotus Brady, 1886, we retain seven Recent species in the genus, including the present new species. Cyprinotus crenatus (Turner, 1893), C. dentatus (Sharpe, 1910), C. flavescens Brady, 1898, C. inconstans Furtos, 1936, C. newmexicoensis Ferguson, 1967, C. ohanopecoshensis Ferguson, 1966, C. pellucidus (Sharpe, 1897), C. scytodus (Dobbin, 1941) and C. sulphurous Blake, 1931 are here all referred to the genus Heterocypris s. lat. Claus, 1892. Cyprinotus unispinifera Furtos, 1936 is assigned to the genus Cypricercus Sars, 1895. Cyprinotus tenuis Henry, 1923, C. fuscus Henry, 1919 and C. carinatus (King, 1855) are here classified as doubtful species. A checklist of the 14 non-marine ostracods, now including Cyprinotus drubea sp. nov. and Cypris granulata (Daday, 1910), thus far reported from New Caledonia, is provided. Herpetocypris caledonica Méhes, 1939 and H. caledonica var. minor Méhes, 1939 are synonymised with Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird, 1843).
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference Tributyltin: A Bottom–Up Regulator of the Crangon crangon Population?
The restrictions and the concerted action of the global ban on the use and presence of tributyltin (TBT) in marine applications to protect ecosystems in the marine environment in 2008 was mainly based on the economic impact on shellfish industries and the dramatic extinction of local mollusk populations in the past. In contrast to the vast datasets on effects on mollusks, the knowledge on impacts on species from other taxa remained in the uncertain until almost two decades ago. The assumption on a long-term TBT-mediated pernicious metabolic bottom–up regulation of the crustacean Crangon crangon population was provoked by the outcome of an EU-project ‘Sources, Consumer Exposure and Risks of Organotin Contamination in Seafood.’ This study reported high TBT body burdens in C. crangon in 2003, at the start of the transition period to the global ban. Experimental research on the TBT impact in C. crangon focused on agonistic interference with natural ecdysteroid hormones at the metabolic pathways regulating growth and reproduction and the biogeochemical distribution of the chemical. In this paper, metabolic, topical and population-relevant biological endpoints in C. crangon and other crustaceans are evaluated in relation to the temporal and spatial trends on TBT’s occurrence and distribution in the field during and after the introduction of the tributyltin restrictions and endocrine-related incidents. Arguments are forwarded to relate the German Bight incident on growth and reproduction failure in the C. crangon population, despite the lack of direct evidence, to the pernicious impact of tributyltin in 1990/91 and previous years. The extreme occurrence of TBT in C. crangon from other parts of the southern North Sea and evidence on the high body burdens as dose metrics of exposure also feeds the suspicion on detrimental impacts in those areas. This paper further demonstrates the complexity of distinguishing and assessing the individual roles of unrelated stressors on a population in an integrated evaluation at the ecosystem level.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference Extreme drought periods can change spatial effects on periphytic ostracod metacommunities in river-floodplain ecosystems
Hydrological regimes are seasonally variable in river-floodplain ecosystems. Thus, since in these environments the local and regional factors change at different temporal scales, factors structuring metacommunities might also differ over time. However, temporal dynamics of metacommunities have rarely been assessed. Here, we investigated the influence of environmental and spatial factors over time on the metacommunity structuring of periphytic ostracods in the river-floodplain system of the Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The spatial factors turned out to be more important than environmental factors, and differences in the percentage of explanation of the factors structuring ostracod metacommunities over time were significant, mainly during extreme drought period. Our results showed that the high spatial influence might be related to the low connectivity amongst environments during such extreme drought period, which can increase dispersal limitation, and consequently can increase the turnover of ostracod species throughout the region, leading to a higher beta-diversity of ostracod metacommunities.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference Urbanization drives cross‐taxon declines in abundance and diversity at multiple spatial scales
The increasing urbanization process is hypothesized to drastically alter (semi‐)natural environments with a concomitant major decline in species abundance and diversity. Yet, studies on this effect of urbanization, and the spatial scale at which it acts, are at present inconclusive due to the large heterogeneity in taxonomic groups and spatial scales at which this relationship has been investigated among studies. Comprehensive studies analysing this relationship across multiple animal groups and at multiple spatial scales are rare, hampering the assessment of how biodiversity generally responds to urbanization. We studied aquatic (cladocerans), limno‐terrestrial (bdelloid rotifers) and terrestrial (butterflies, ground beetles, ground‐ and web spiders, macro‐moths, orthopterans and snails) invertebrate groups using a hierarchical spatial design, wherein three local‐scale (200 m × 200 m) urbanization levels were repeatedly sampled across three landscape‐scale (3 km × 3 km) urbanization levels. We tested for local and landscape urbanization effects on abundance and species richness of each group, whereby total richness was partitioned into the average richness of local communities and the richness due to variation among local communities. Abundances of the terrestrial active dispersers declined in response to local urbanization, with reductions up to 85% for butterflies, while passive dispersers did not show any clear trend. Species richness also declined with increasing levels of urbanization, but responses were highly heterogeneous among the different groups with respect to the richness component and the spatial scale at which urbanization impacts richness. Depending on the group, species richness declined due to biotic homogenization and/or local species loss. This resulted in an overall decrease in total richness across groups in urban areas. These results provide strong support to the general negative impact of urbanization on abundance and species richness within habitat patches and highlight the importance of considering multiple spatial scales and taxa to assess the impacts of urbanization on biodiversity.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference The Freshwater Information Platform: a global online network providing data, tools and resources for science and policy support
Freshwaters are among the most complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems globally. Despite their small share of the earth’s surface (less than 1%) they are home to over 10% of all known animal species. Biodiversity decrease in general and freshwater biodiversity decline in particular have recently received increasing attention, and various policy instruments are now targeting the conservation, protection and enhancement of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Surveillance programs as well as a variety of research projects have been producing a tremendous amount of freshwater-related information. Though there have been various attempts to build infrastructures for online collection of such data, tools and reports, they often provide only limited access to resources that can readily be extracted for conducting large scale analyses. Here, we present the Freshwater Information Platform, an open system of relevant freshwater biodiversity-related information. We provide a comprehensive overview of the platform’s core components, highlight their values, present options for their use, and discuss future developments. This is complemented by information on the platform’s current management structure, options for contributing data and research results and an outlook for the future.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference The Freshwater Information Platform: An online network supporting freshwater biodiversity research and data publishing
Species distribution data are crucial for understanding biodiversity dynamics and the underlying drivers. For freshwaters, which cover only a small proportion of the world's surface, but host a large variety of species, knowledge on species occurrences is extremely important as they are among the most endangered ecosystems globally. However, a huge body of data gathered by scientists and water managers is currently difficult to access: systematic data publishing practices have not been fully adopted yet and data embedded in scientific papers and research project websites are often challenging to extract. At the same time, data and knowledge generated through publically-funded research or monitoring programmes are considered a common good. The Freshwater Information Platform (FIP) aims at pooling freshwater related research information from multiple projects and initiatives to make it easily accessible for scientists, water managers, conservationists and the interested public. The FIP consists of several major components, three of which form its “data publication unit”: The Freshwater Metadatabase (1) is an online tool where data characterising and documenting actual datasets can be entered in a simple way. With one more mouseclick these metadata can then be published as open access articles in the connected Freshwater Metadata Journal. The second part of the unit is the Freshwater Biodiversity Data Portal (2), where we aim to mobilise and publish the connected freshwater biodiversity data (occurrence records) through GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility). The use of collected datasets for large-scale analyses and models is demonstrated in the Global Freshwater Biodiversity Atlas (3) that publishes interactive online maps featuring research results on freshwater biodiversity, threats and conservation priorities. Here, we focus on introducing these components as tools to streamline open access freshwater data publication, arguing it will improve the capacity to protect and manage freshwater biodiversity in the face of global change. We further present linkages to and cooperations with other key initiatives in the field, namely the "Alliance for Freshwater Life" as well as "FreshwaterBON".
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019
Article Reference Are Cardinium infections causing asexuality in non-marine ostracods?
Endosymbiotic bacteria manipulating host biology and reproduction, and sometimes also causing parthenogenesis, are known from many metazoan taxa. Three recent studies have reported Cardinium endosymbionts in non-marine ostracods with different reproductive modes. Here, we test with all available data which (a)biotic factors could possibly shape infection patterns in these crustaceans. The presence of Cardinium in non-marine ostracods differs significantly between genders and between species with different reproductive modes. We observed more infections in females and found Cardinium only in ostracods with mixed and asexual reproduction. There is a significant positive correlation between latitude and Cardinium infection, which might be linked to geographic parthenogenesis, a common phenomenon in non-marine ostracods with mixed reproduction. We suggest that the observed patterns best fit a polymorphic equilibrium between endosymbionts and their hosts. Ostracods with mixed reproduction often produce young asexual lineages, implying that Cardinium infections might have occurred more recently, and are widespread. In contrast, putative ancient asexual darwinulid ostracod shows less frequent occurrence of Cardinium. Loss of endosymbionts in these asexual ostracods during their long evolutionary histories of millions of years seems a more likely explanation. Which factors influence Cardinium prevalence in non-marine ostracods needs to be further tested in life history experiments.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2019