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Article Reference Cross-taxon congruence of taxonomic and functional beta diversity facets across spatial and temporal scales
An intensively debated issue in ecology is whether the variations in the biodiversity patterns of different biological groups are congruent in space and time. In addition, ecologists have recognized the necessity of accounting for both taxonomic and functional facets when analysing spatial and temporal congruence patterns. This study aimed to determine how the cross-taxon congruence of taxonomic and functional beta diversity varies across space and time, using data from four floodplains at a continental scale. Our general hypothesis was that the congruence between aquatic biological groups, either taxonomic or functional, would decrease with the “between-group” functional distance. Also, we examined how congruence patterns varied across spatial and temporal scales by focusing on how the cross-taxon relationships differ among Brazilian floodplains and between dry/wet periods. Our study comprised information on eight biological groups from the four largest Brazilian river-floodplain systems, and cross-taxon congruence was assessed using Procrustes analysis. Our results show how detailed analyses can reveal different patterns of cross-taxon congruence, and partially support the hypothesis that the strength of cross-taxon congruence is negatively related to between-group functional distance.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference A (very) brief vademecum on biological nomenclature
This editorial is aimed at explaining why the editors of Hydrobiologia are so concerned with biological nomenclature and why we ask our authors the utmost precision when referring to species in their papers. In particular, the Instructions for Authors of the journal specify that “When a species name is used for the first time in an article, it should be stated in full, and the name of its describer should also be given” (https://www.springer.com/journal/10750/submission-guidelines?IFA#Instructions%20for%20Authors_Scientific%20style). In the next lines, we want to show that this is not just an old fashion formalism, but a necessity to correctly and univocally identify the biological subjects that are the basis of the research published in this journal. Moreover, Hydrobiologia is a generalist journal giving voice to research embedded in a wide ecological and evolutionary context, carried out in any kind of aquatic ecosystem, and considering all their biological entities from small viruses onwards to large whales! Thus, the work of a, for example, fish biologist, should be readable for a botanist and vice versa. This achievement can be reached by avoiding as much as possible the jargon typical of each discipline (as the so called “common names” can be considered) and allowing the unequivocal identification of the targeted biological entities.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference Dried aquatic macrophytes are floating egg banks and potential dispersal vectors of ostracods (Crustacea) from pleuston communities.
In aquatic ecosystems, such as Neotropical floodplains, it is common to find dried aquatic macrophytes along the margins of various environments (e.g. lakes and rivers) during the dry season. Here, we evaluate the potential of dried Eichhornia crassipes as a dispersal vector of ostracod resting eggs by assessing the abundance, richness and beta diversity of the dormant associated fauna. We test two hypotheses: (1) that the roots of E. crassipes shelter and disperse ostracod resting eggs and (2) that the abundance, richness and beta diversity of dormant assemblages will increase over the incubation time after re-hydration. Dried E. crassipes from floodplain lakes were hydrated with distilled water. The microcosms were kept in germinating chambers with controlled temperature and photoperiod during 147 days. A total of 397 ostracods representing seven species hatched from the resting eggs attached to dried macrophyte roots. An increase in richness and a decrease in abundance were observed over the weeks, although these trends were not significant. However, the beta diversity increased significantly over the incubation time. Our results show that the complex root systems of E. crassipes have the potential for storage and dispersal of ostracod resting eggs.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference A comparison of three main scientific literature databases using a search in aquatic ecology
Online searches for relevant scientific references using keywords have become common practice. Several multidisciplinary scientific online databases are available, of which Web of Science, Scopus (both payable) and Google Scholar (free of charge) are the most commonly used. We test the hypothesis that results of highly similar searches in these three databases do not necessarily give comparable results. We set out to query the three databases with a real example on “diapause in microcrustaceans” (Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda), using the same time period (2012–2021), the same keywords with the same syntaxis and the same sorting criterion (“relevance”), and compared the first 100 hits provided by each database. There were several references provided which were irrelevant to the search, especially in the Web of Science, and of the remaining relevant references, only 9.84% were provided by all three databases. Our survey showed significant differences amongst the results provided by the databases, especially for “hydroperiod” and “type of environment”. These differences can be the result of different coverage of the scientific literature by the databases, but also of the different ways by which the criterion “relevance” is calculated by the three algorithms. We, therefore, recommend that literature surveys must be based on several databases; otherwise, the results might become biased.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference On a new species of Pseudocypretta Klie, 1932 (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from the Neotropical region, with a discussion on the position of the genus. 
Pseudocypretta amor sp. nov. (named after the carapace spots resembling the word “Love”) is here described from all-female populations from the four major floodplains in Brazil. The new species is compared to the other two know species in the genus, P. maculata Klie (1932), the type species, and P. lineata Ma and Yu (2020). As the latter two species are thus far found exclusively in South East Asia and China, respectively, the present extension of the area of the genus to South America is considerable. Several morphological characters in this genus and species are discussed, especially the presence of marginal septa in the valves, the candonid type T3 with 3rd and 4th segment separated (candonid type) and the caudal ramus which is reduced to a flagellum (cypridopsine type) or is fully absent. Based on the combination of these and other characters, the genus Pseudocypretta is here transferred from the Cyprettinae to the tribe Cyprettadopsini in the Cypridopsinae, as it is closely related to the genus Cyprettadopsis Savatenalinton, 2020. The presence of the candonid type T3 in Cyprididae and Notodromadidae, where the T3 generally has a pincer-shaped tip by the fusion of the 3rd and the 4th segment, is further discussed.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference On an endemic species flock of cypridopsine ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from the ancient Lake Malawi (Africa), with the description of a new genus and three new species
We describe Malawidopsis gen. nov., a new genus of Cypridopsinae Kaufmann, 1900 from the African ancient Lake Malawi. The genus comprises at least 17 new species, which makes it a significant ostracod radiation in this lake, parallel to a similar (but independent) cypridopsine radiation in Lake Tanganyika. Three of these new species are here described: Malawidopsis stellae gen. et. sp. nov., the type species of the new genus; M. ruwaydae gen. et. sp. nov. and M. antoniae gen. et. sp. nov.. The other new species are briefly illustrated and described, but are left in open nomenclature (sp. A, B, C, etc.). Cypridopsis cunningtoni Sars, 1910 and Potamocypris fuelleborni Daday, 1910 are transferred to Malawidopsis gen. nov. and are identical to Malawidopsis spec. F and Malawidopsis spec. N, respectively. The new tribe Plesiocyprisopsini trib. nov. is erected, and comprises the cypridopsine genera previously in the Cypridopsini s.l. with the right valve overlapping the left valve, at least anteriorly. Potential drivers of speciation within this endemic clade in Lake Malawi are briefly discussed. Bathymetry might have been important, with most species being restricted to shallower depths and only four species also occurring at depths of 75 m or more, but very few specimens were retrieved from greater depths. Most species occurred on coarse sand, but this sediment category coincides with shallower stations. Overall, most species appear to have a wide geographical distribution in the lake, so no geographical parapatric speciation is apparent. The occurrence of all species in sexual populations and the significant differences in the male sexual organs and the valves suggest that sexual selection might have been the most important driver in the speciation process of this species flock, but this should be further explored. Following deep coring results in Lake Malawi, the present clade could be (at least) c one million years old.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference Describing novel mitochondrial genomes of Antarctic amphipods
To date, only one mitogenome from an Antarctic amphipod has been published. Here, novel complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of two morphospecies are assembled, namely, Charcotia amundseni and Eusirus giganteus. For the latter species, we have assembled two mitogenomes from different genetic clades of this species. The lengths of Eusirus and Charcotia mitogenomes range from 15,534 to 15,619 base pairs and their mitogenomes are composed of 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and 1 putative control region CR. Some tRNAs display aberrant structures suggesting that minimalization is also ongoing in amphipod mitogenomes. The novel mitogenomes of the two Antarctic species have features distinguishing them from other amphipod mitogenomes such as a lower AT-richness in the whole mitogenomes and a negative GC- skew in both strands of protein coding genes. The genetically most variable mitochondrial regions of amphipods are nad6 and atp8, while cox1 shows low nucleotide diversity among closely and more distantly related species. In comparison to the pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, E. giganteus shows a translocation of the nad1 gene, while cytb and nad6 genes are translocated in C. amundseni. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitogenomes illustrates that Eusirus and Charcotia cluster together with other species belonging to the same amphipod superfamilies. In the absence of reference nuclear genomes, mitogenomes can be useful to develop markers for studying population genetics or evolutionary relationships at higher taxonomic levels.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Article Reference Dispersal model alert on the risks of alien species introduction by ballast waters in protected areas from the Western Antarctic Peninsula
Aim The Western Antarctic Peninsula is challenged by climate change and increasing maritime traffic that together facilitate the introduction of marine non-native species from warmer regions neighbouring the Southern Ocean. Ballast water exchange has been frequently reported as an introduction vector. This study uses a Lagrangian approach to model the passive drift of virtual propagules departing from Ballast water hypothetic exchange zones, at contrasting distances from the coasts. Location Western Antarctic Peninsula. Methods Virtual propagules were released over the 2008–2016 period and at three distances from the nearest coasts: 200 (convention for the management of Ballast Water, 2004), 50 or 11 nautical miles (NM). Results Results show that exchanging Ballast water at 200 NM considerably reduces the arrival of propagules in proposed marine protected areas of the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula. On the eastern side, propagules can reach north-eastern marine protected areas within a few days due to strong currents for all tested scenarios. Seasonal and yearly variations indicate that exceptional climate events could influence the trajectory of particles in the region. Ballast water should be exchanged at least 200 NM offshore on the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula and avoided on the eastern side to limit particle arrival in proposed marine protected areas. Focusing on Deception Island, our results suggested that the Patagonian crab (Halicarcinus planatus) observed in 2010 could have been introduced in case of Ballast water exchange at 50 NM or less from the coast. Main conclusions This study highlights the importance of respecting Ballast water exchange convention to limit the risk of non-native species introduction. Ballast water exchange should be operated at least at 200 NM from the coasts, which further limits particle arrival in shallow water areas. This is especially important in the context of a more visited and warmer Southern Ocean.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022
Webpublished Reference Walvissen uit het Waasland
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Techreport Reference Turbine size impacts the number of seabird collisions per installed megawatt and offers possibilities for mitigation.
As the offshore wind energy technology is rapidly progressing and because wind turbines at sea have a relatively short life span, repowering scenarios are already being discussed for the oldest wind farms. Ongoing developments result in larger wind turbines and an increased open airspace between turbines. Despite taller towers having larger rotor swept zones and therefore a higher collision risk area compared to smaller-sized turbines, there is increasing evidence that fewer but larger, more power-efficient turbines may have a lower collision rate per installed megawatt. As such, turbine size can offer an opportunity to mitigate seabird fatalities by increasing the clearance below the lower rotor tip. We assessed the seabird collision risk for a hypothetical repowering scenario of the first offshore wind farm zone in Belgian waters with larger turbines and the effect of an additional increase in hub height on that theoretical collision risk. For all species included in this exercise, the estimated collision risk decreased in a repowering scenario with 15 MW turbines (40.4% reduction on average) because of higher clearance between the lower tip of the turbine rotor and the sea level, and the need for a lower number of turbines per km². Increasing the hub height of those 15 MW turbines with 10 m, further decreases the expected number of seabird collisions with another 37% on average. However, terrestrial birds and bats also migrate at sea and the effect of larger turbines on these taxa is less clear. Possibly even more terrestrial birds and bats are at risk of collision compared to the current turbines. So, while larger turbines and increasing the hub height can be beneficial for seabirds, this likely needs to be applied in combination with curtailment strategies, which stop the turbines during heavy migration events, to reduce the impact on other species groups.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2022