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Article Reference Defense by Volatiles in Leaf-Mining Insect Larvae
Abstract The defense strategy of an insect toward natural enemies can include a trait that appears at first sight to contradict its defensive function. We explored phylogeny, chemistry, and defense efficiency of a peculiar group of hymenopteran sawfly larvae where this contradiction is obvious. Pseudodineurini larvae live in leaf mines that protect them from some enemies. Disturbed larvae also emit a clearly perceptible lemon-like odor produced by ventral glands, although the mine hampers the evaporation of the secretion. The mine could also lead to autointoxication of a larva by its own emitted volatiles. Citral was the major component in all Pseudodineurini species, and it efficiently repels ants. We conclude that full-grown larvae that leave their mine to pupate in the soil benefit from citral by avoiding attacks from ground-dwelling arthropods such as ants. In some species, we also detected biosynthetically related compounds, two 8-oxocitral diastereomers (i.e., (2E,6E)- and (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethylocta-2,6-dienedial). Synthetic 8-oxocitral proved to be a potent fungicide, but not an ant repellent. The discrete distribution of 8-oxocitral was unrelated to species grouping in the phylogenetic tree. In contrast, we discovered that its presence was associated with species from humid and cold zones but absent in species favoring warm and dry environments. The former should be protected by 8-oxocitral when faced with a fungal infestation while crawling into the soil. Our work shows the importance of integrating knowledge about behavior, morphology, and life history stages for understanding the complex evolution of insects and especially their defense strategies.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference The giant bite of a new raptorial sperm whale from the Miocene epoch of Peru
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference A Miocene Ziphiid (Cetacea: Odontoceti) from Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, U.S.A.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference Tusk-bearing beaked whales from the Miocene of Peru: sexual dimorphism in fossil ziphiids?
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference Rostral densification in beaked whales: diverse processes for a similar pattern
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference Histology and growth pattern of the pachy-osteosclerotic premaxillae of the fossil beaked whale Aporotus recurvirostris (Mammalia, Cetacea, Odontoceti)
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference Osteological associations with unique tooth developement in manatees (Trichechidae, Sirenia): a detailed look at modern Trichechus and a review of the fossil record
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference A new genus and species of Late Miocene inioid (Cetacea: Odontoceti) from the Meherrin River, North Carolina, U.S.A.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference Taxonomic revision of Isocetus depauwi (Mammalia, Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the phylogenetic relationships of archaic ‘cetothere’ mysticetes
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications
Article Reference First report of the exotic blue planarian, Caenoplana coerulea (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae), on Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)
In April 2009 two specimens of a terrestrial flatworm were collected from under a rock in an orchard at Ciutadella de Menorca on the easternmost Balearic island of Menorca (Spain). Their external morphology suggested that both specimens belonged to the invasive blue planarian Caenoplana coerulea, a species which is native to eastern Australia. Sequence data of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and of the entire 18S ribosomal RNA confirm its identification. This is one of the first records of the species in Europe where it has only been found in one locality in the United Kingdom, France and NE Spain.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications