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Article Reference Agropastoral and dietary practices of the northern Levant facing Late Holocene climate and environmental change: Isotopic analysis of plants, animals and humans from Bronze to Iron Age Tell Tweini
One of the largest isotopic datasets of the ancient Eastern Mediterranean region is evaluated, based on plants (n = 410), animals (n = 210) and humans (n = 16) from Tell Tweini (Syria). Diachronic analysis of plant and faunal specimens from four main periods of occupation: Early Bronze Age (2600–2000 BC), Middle Bronze Age (2000–1600 BC), Late Bronze Age (1600–1200 BC) and Iron Age (1200–333 BC) were investigated. Mean Δ13C results from seven plant species reveal emmer and free threshing wheat, olives, bitter vetch, rye grass and barley were adequately or well-watered during all periods of occupation. The grape Δ13C results suggest excellent growing conditions and particular care for its cultivation. The δ15N results indicate that especially the emmer and free threshing wheats received some manure inputs throughout the occupation sequence, while these were likely further increased during the Iron Age, encompassing also the olive groves and grape vineyards. Generally, domestic animals (cattle, sheep, goats) had C3 terrestrial diets and were kept together in similar environments. However, some animals consumed significant amounts of marine or C4 plants, possibly from disturbed habitats due to land use pressure or salt tolerant grasses and shrubs from wetland environments, which were recorded in the direct vicinity of the site. Middle Bronze Age humans consumed a C3 terrestrial diet with no measurable input from C4, freshwater or marine protein sources. Interestingly, the human diet was relatively low in animal protein and appears comparable to what is considered today a typical Mediterranean diet consisting of bread (wheat/barley), olives, grapes, pulses, dairy products and small amounts of meat. The combined isotopic analysis of plants, animals and humans from Tell Tweini represents unbroken links in the food chain which create unparalleled opportunities to enhance our current understanding of environmental conditions, climate change and lifeways in past populations from the Eastern Mediterranean.
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2024
Webpublished Reference The Merksplas Formation
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Jagersborg Member
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Pey Bed
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Brunssum Member
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Op-den-Berg Facies
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Waubach Member
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Kieseloolite Formation
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Inden Formation
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023
Webpublished Reference The Wurfeld Formation
Located in Library / RBINS Staff Publications 2023