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You are here: Home / Associated publications / Belgian Journal of Zoology / Bibliographic References / Organization of song in the European starling: species-specifïcity and individual differences.

M EENS, R PINXTEN and RF VERHEYEN (1991)

Organization of song in the European starling: species-specifïcity and individual differences.

BELGIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 121(2):257-278.

In this paper we give a detailed description of the song and the song organization of the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris LINNAEUS) during the breeding season. We recorded songs of 25 males in Belgium and of 2 males in New Zealand. We show that there are clear species-specific characteristics in the complex song of the starling, but also reveal many individual differences. During the breeding season, male starlings sing the majority of their song (90 \% or more) in long and complex song bouts. These songs bouts consist of a rapid succession of a great variety of different song types resulting in a song with much contrast. Although there are large differences in average song bout length among males (range: 15-35 seconds), the song bouts of all males we studied, both in Belgium and New Zealand, were composed of four categories of song types following each other in a fixed order. Detailed analysis of the sequencing of song types within song bouts of two males showed that song types are not presented randomly: a given song type can be preceded and followed by only a limited number of other song types. The majority of song types in the repertoires of starlings is individually characteristic. We found large differences in repertoire size among males, extending from 21 to 67 song types. There appeared to be little difference between Belgian and New Zealand starlings in song organization.

EUROPEAN STARLING; STURNUS-VULGARIS; SONG; ORGANIZATION OF SONG; SONG REPERTOIRE SIZE; REPERTOIRE COMPOSITION; NEW-ZEALAND
BJZ

ISSN 2295-0451 (online version)
ISSN 0777-6279 (printed version)
impact factor 2015: 0,87.

Editor-in-Chief:
Prof. Dr. Isa Schön
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences
Vautierstraat 29
1000 Brussels, Belgium

 



1863-1903
Annales de la Société malacologique de Belgique
 
1903-1923
​Annales de la Société royale malacologique et zoologique de Belgique
 
1923-1989
Annales de la Société Royale Zoologique de Belgique
 
1989-
Belgian Journal of Zoology